r U+0072, r
LATIN SMALL LETTER R
q
[U+0071]
Basic Latin s
[U+0073]
ʳ U+02B3, ʳ
MODIFIER LETTER SMALL R
ʲ
[U+02B2]
Spacing Modifier Letters ʴ
[U+02B4]
U+FF52, r
FULLWIDTH LATIN SMALL LETTER R

[U+FF51]
Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms
[U+FF53]
𝆌 U+1D18C, 𝆌
MUSICAL SYMBOL RINFORZANDO
◌𝆋
[U+1D18B]
Musical Symbols 𝆍
[U+1D18D]

Translingual edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1 edit

  Modification of capital letter R by not closing the bottom of the loop but continuing into the leg to save a pen stroke, later shortening the right leg into a simple arc.

Alternative forms edit

Letter edit

r (upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (file)

Symbol edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

r

  1. Abbreviation of ronto-.
  2. (engineering, geometry) radius
  3. (IPA) (a) an alveolar trill.
    (b) Used in broad transcription for any rhotic consonant, e.g. in English, French or Japanese where the ⟨r⟩ is not a trill [r].
    (c) (superscript ⟨ʳ⟩) an [r]-trill release (of a plosive); a weak, fleeting or epenthetic [r].
    (d) (superscript, obsolete) a non-trilled rhotic coloration or offglide of a vowel; a rhotic vowel, now formed with ⟨◌˞⟩ or a more-precise transcription such as ʴ – see ⟨ʳ⟩.
  4. (phonetics) used in several romanization systems of non-Latin scripts to represent various rhotic sounds:
    1. Romanization of the Hebrew ⁧ר(reish”, “resh”, “rēš) in the Common Israeli, Hebrew Academy (1953 and 2006), and ISO 259 transliteration schemes
    2. Romanization of the Hebrew ⁧רּ(reish”, “resh”, “rēš ḥāzāq) in the Common Israeli transliteration scheme
Synonyms edit
  • (Romanization of ⁧רּ⁩, “reish”, “resh”, “rēš ḥāzāq”): rr (in the Hebrew Academy (1953 and 2006) and ISO 259 transliteration schemes)

Gallery edit

See also edit

Other representations of R:

English edit

Etymology 1 edit

 
Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter ᚱ, the Old English letter replaced by Latin r

Old English lower case letter r, from 7th century replacement by Latin lower case r of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter .

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R, plural rs or r's)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the English alphabet, called ar and written in the Latin script.
See also edit

Number edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The ordinal number eighteenth, derived from this letter of the English alphabet, called ar and written in the Latin script.

Etymology 2 edit

From are and our, pronounced like the name of the letter r.

Verb edit

r

  1. (Internet slang, text messaging) Abbreviation of are.
    How r uHow are you?
Translations edit

Determiner edit

r

  1. (Internet slang, text messaging) Abbreviation of our.
    • 2013, Jessica Burkhart, Home for Christmas (Canterwood Crest; Super Special), New York, NY: Aladdin M!X, →ISBN, page 44:
      This was supposed 2 be a SURPRISE, but the girls got it out of me. ☺ I wanted all of us 2 spend Xmas 2gether. By all, I mean r horses 2. Sooo . . . B, C, G, Z, & D, you have guests waiting @ BC. Zane, Valentino, Scout, Nero, & Polo r there! Now we can ride r horses when we r not volunteering & spend Xmas w them. ☺

Etymology 3 edit

Abbreviations.

r

  1. (stenoscript) the sound sequence /ɑr/, including the verb are
  2. (stenoscript) Abbreviation of her and inflection hers.
  3. (stenoscript) Abbreviation of our, inflection ours, and homophone hour.

See also edit

Azerbaijani edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r lower case (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-fourth letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Basque edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Basque alphabet, called erre and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Dutch alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Derived terms edit

See also edit

  • Previous letter: q
  • Next letter: s

See also edit

Egyptian edit

Etymology 1 edit

The actual reading of this word is uncertain, as it is always written as an ideogram, but evidence from Coptic suggests the original was rꜣ. The extension in meaning to ‘part, piece, fraction’ might be either by way of a mouthful being used as a standard share in some distribution of food or goods,[1] or else extended from its meaning of ‘opening’ > ‘division’.

Pronunciation edit

 

Noun edit

r
Z1

 m

  1. mouth (of humans or animals)
    • Reign of Amenemhat II or Senusret II, c. 1929–1878 BCE, Stela of Hekaib (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, AP 78):
      nw
      k
      n&D sA1iq
      r
      D&d mr
      Z1
      f
      jnk nḏs jqr ḏd m r(ꜣ).f
      I was an excellent individual, one who spoke with his own mouth.
  2. (figuratively, chiefly in titles) speaker, mouthpiece
  3. utterance, statement
  4. especially, ritual utterance, spell
  5. (rare) language, manner of speech
  6. opening, hole
  7. bodily orifice, opening of the human body in general, including eyes, ears, nostrils, the vulva, and open wounds
  8. entrance to a building, doorway
  9. entrance to a land or place in general
  10. mouth of a river
  11. water’s edge, waterline
  12. (especially in compounds) place or thing seen as an opening from one point to another, passage, thoroughfare
  13. a measure of volume equivalent to 132 of a hnw or 1320 of a ḥqꜣt (about 15 millilitres); mouthful
  14. part, piece, fraction
  15. (mathematics) used as a numerator of 1 in fractions, literally “piece of (the denominator)”.
    • 12th Dynasty, Siut Tomb I, 285, published in Griffith, Francis Llewellyn, The inscriptions of Siûṭ and Dêr Rîfeh:
      r
      V1 V1 V1
      V20 V20 V20
      V20 V20 V20
      r(ꜣ) ḫmtw-št sjsjw
      1360
Usage notes edit
Following Sethe,[3] it has often been suggested that r should also be taken to mean ‘one third’ as a reading of the sign
 
(questionably attested in hieroglyphs proper), extrapolating backward from the dual form rwj (two thirds); however, such a usage remains uncertain, and the reading of the form ḫmt-rw (three fourths) argues against the interpretation of r in rwj as specifically meaning a third.
Inflection edit

In the sense of ‘mouth’ the plural is rare, as the singular is usually used even in reference to the mouths of multiple people.

Alternative forms edit

The senses relating to ‘opening, doorway’ sometimes carry different determinatives:

The sense ‘water’s edge’ is similarly sometimes found with a different determinative:

Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Demotic: rꜣ
    • Coptic: ⲣⲟ (ro) (Sahidic, Bohairic, Akhmimic), ⲗⲁ (la) (Fayyumic)

Etymology 2 edit

Possibly cognate to Hebrewאֶל(ʾel, to, at), Arabicإِلَى(ʔilā, to, until, near).[4]

Pronunciation edit

 

Preposition edit

r
  1. regarding, with respect to, concerning, according to
  2. in order to, for (the purpose of)
  3. (with following infinitive) forms the periphrastic prospective of a verb
  4. (with verbs of motion, of places) to, towards
  5. (in adverbial sentences, of places, roles, or functions) headed for, destined for, bound for
  6. (of time) at, in, on
  7. against, in opposition to
  8. from, apart from (ablative)
  9. (after an adjective or adverb, forming the comparative) than, by comparison to
  10. (generally in sentence-initial form jr) introduces the protasis of a conditional sentence; if, when, as
  11. (with a verb in the terminative as object) until
Inflection edit
Alternative forms edit
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit

Particle edit

r

 enclitic

  1. (with attached suffix pronoun) so, regarding (that, you, me, etc.), as for (that, you, me, etc.)
Usage notes edit

This usage is distinguished from the preposition by the fact that it occurs as the enclitic second element in a clause instead of at the end of a clause, as is otherwise the case with prepositional phrases.

Alternative forms edit

See also edit

References edit

  • rʾ (lemma ID 92560)”, in Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae[1], Corpus issue 17, Web app version 2.01, Tonio Sebastian Richter & Daniel A. Werning by order of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and Hans-Werner Fischer-Elfert & Peter Dils by order of the Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, 2004–15 December 2022
  • r (lemma ID 91900)”, in Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae[2], Corpus issue 17, Web app version 2.01, Tonio Sebastian Richter & Daniel A. Werning by order of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and Hans-Werner Fischer-Elfert & Peter Dils by order of the Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, 2004–15 December 2022
  • jr (lemma ID 28170)”, in Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae[3], Corpus issue 17, Web app version 2.01, Tonio Sebastian Richter & Daniel A. Werning by order of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and Hans-Werner Fischer-Elfert & Peter Dils by order of the Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, 2004–15 December 2022
  • Erman, Adolf; Grapow, Hermann (1926) Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache[4], volume 1, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, →ISBN, page 103.6–103.9
  • Erman, Adolf; Grapow, Hermann (1928) Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache[5], volume 2, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, →ISBN, page 386.6–388.10, 389.1–392.10
  • Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN, page 145–146
  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 65, 71, 87, 118, 170, 179–180, 196, 410–411.
  • Gardiner, Alan (1957) Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, third edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN, page 429
  • Hoch, James (1997) Middle Egyptian Grammar, Mississauga: Benben Publications, →ISBN, page 42
  1. ^ Palma, Helena Lopez (2015) “Egyptian Fractional Numerals: The grammar of Egyptian NPs and statements with fractional number expressions” in Lingua Aegyptia, volume 23, page 199
  2. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 58
  3. ^ Sethe, Kurt (1916) Von Zahlen und Zahlworten bei den alten Ägyptern, page 82–83
  4. ^ Hoch, James (1997) Middle Egyptian Grammar, Mississauga: Benben Publications, →ISBN, page 15

Esperanto edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Esperanto alphabet, called ro and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Estonian edit

 
Estonian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia et

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Estonian alphabet, called err and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Faroese edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (upper case R)

  1. The twentieth letter of the Faroese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

The Finnish orthography using the Latin script was based on those of Swedish, German and Latin, and was first used in the mid-16th century. No earlier script is known. See the Wikipedia article on Finnish for more information, and r for information on the development of the glyph itself.

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Finnish alphabet, called är or er and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

French edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (letter name) IPA(key): /ɛʁ/

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the French alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Fula edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. A letter of the Fula alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Usage notes edit

See also edit

Gothic edit

Romanization edit

r

  1. Romanization of 𐍂

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (phoneme): IPA(key): [ˈr]
  • (letter name): IPA(key): [ˈɛrː]

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-ninth letter of the Hungarian alphabet, called err and written in the Latin script.

Declension edit

Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative r r-ek
accusative r-et r-eket
dative r-nek r-eknek
instrumental r-rel r-ekkel
causal-final r-ért r-ekért
translative r-ré r-ekké
terminative r-ig r-ekig
essive-formal r-ként r-ekként
essive-modal
inessive r-ben r-ekben
superessive r-en r-eken
adessive r-nél r-eknél
illative r-be r-ekbe
sublative r-re r-ekre
allative r-hez r-ekhez
elative r-ből r-ekből
delative r-ről r-ekről
ablative r-től r-ektől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
r-é r-eké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
r-éi r-ekéi
Possessive forms of r
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. r-em r-jeim
2nd person sing. r-ed r-jeid
3rd person sing. r-je r-jei
1st person plural r-ünk r-jeink
2nd person plural r-etek r-jeitek
3rd person plural r-jük r-jeik

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • r in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Ido edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (context pronunciation) IPA(key): /ɾ/
  • (letter name) IPA(key): /ɾe/

Letter edit

r (upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Ido alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Italian edit

Letter edit

r f or m (invariable, lower case, upper case R)

  1. The sixteenth letter of the Italian alphabet, called erre and written in the Latin script.

Kashubian edit

Etymology edit

The Kashubian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Kashubian alphabet article on Wikipedia for more, and r for development of the glyph itself.

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-fifth letter of the Kashubian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Latvian edit

 
Latvian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia lv

Etymology edit

Proposed in 1908 as part of the new Latvian spelling by the scientific commission headed by K. Mīlenbahs, which was accepted and began to be taught in schools in 1909. Prior to that, Latvian had been written in German Fraktur, and sporadically in Cyrillic.

Pronunciation edit

  This entry needs an audio pronunciation. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record this word. The recorded pronunciation will appear here when it's ready.

Letter edit

 
R

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-fifth letter of the Latvian alphabet, called er and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Livonian edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-ninth letter of the Livonian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Malay edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Maltese edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-second letter of the Maltese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Mandarin edit

Romanization edit

r (r5r0, Zhuyin ˙ㄖ)

  1. Hanyu Pinyin reading of

References edit

Norwegian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /ærː/, /æɾː/
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /r/, /ɾ/, /ʁ/
  • (file)

Letter edit

r

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Norwegian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Usage notes edit

  • /ʁ/ is the pronunciation of r usually found in southern and southeastern dialects of Norway. Bergen has the dialect best known for this sound. Said to come from Danish and/or German, originally from French.
  • Dialects with /ʁ/ do not have retroflex consonants.

Nupe edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twentieth letter of the Nupe alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Polish edit

Etymology edit

The Polish orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the history of Polish orthography article on Wikipedia for more, and r for development of the glyph itself.

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (upper case R, lower case)

  1. The twenty-third letter of the Polish alphabet, called er and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Portuguese edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Portuguese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Romani edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. (International Standard) The twenty-second letter of the Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.
  2. (Pan-Vlax) The twenty-third letter of the Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

References edit

  • Yūsuke Sumi (2018), “R, r”, in ニューエクスプレスプラス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Plus Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, published 2021, →ISBN, →OCLC, page 14

Romanian edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Romanian alphabet, called er, re, or and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Scottish Gaelic edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The fifteenth letter of the Scottish Gaelic alphabet, written in the Latin script. It is preceded by p and followed by s. Its traditional name is ruis (elder).

See also edit

Serbo-Croatian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • R (uppercase)

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (Cyrillic spelling р)

  1. The 23rd letter of the Serbo-Croatian Latin alphabet (gajica), preceded by p and followed by s.

Silesian edit

Etymology edit

The Silesian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Silesian language article on Wikipedia for more, and r for development of the glyph itself.

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-fifth letter of the Silesian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Skolt Sami edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-seventh letter of the Skolt Sami alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Spanish edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): (phoneme) /ɾ/, /r/
  • IPA(key): (letter name) /ˈere/ [ˈe.re]

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Spanish alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Tagalog edit

Etymology edit

From Spanish r. Each pronunciation has a different source:

  • Filipino alphabet pronunciation is influenced by English r.
  • Abakada alphabet pronunciation is influenced by Baybayin character (da/ra).
  • Abecedario pronunciation is from Spanish r.

Pronunciation edit

  • Hyphenation: R
  • (letter name, Filipino alphabet): IPA(key): /ʔaɾ/, [ʔɐɾ]
  • (letter name, Abakada alphabet): IPA(key): /ɾa/, [ɾɐ]
  • (letter name, Abecedario): IPA(key): /ˈʔeɾe/, [ˈʔɛ.ɾɛ]
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /ɾ/, [ɾ]
  • Rhymes: -aɾ, -a, -eɾe

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R, Baybayin spelling ᜀᜇ᜔)

  1. The twentieth letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Filipino alphabet), called ar and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R, Baybayin spelling )

  1. The fifteenth letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Abakada alphabet), called ra and written in the Latin script.

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R, Baybayin spelling ᜁᜇᜒ)

  1. (historical) The twenty-first letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Abecedario), called ere and written in the Latin script.

Further reading edit

  • r”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Turkish edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Turkish alphabet, called re and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Turkmen edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Turkmen alphabet, called er and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Yoruba edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Yoruba alphabet, called and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Zulu edit

Letter edit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Zulu alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit