See also:

ʻ U+02BB, ʻ
MODIFIER LETTER TURNED COMMA
ʺ
[U+02BA]
Spacing Modifier Letters ʼ
[U+02BC]
ՙ U+0559, ՙ
ARMENIAN MODIFIER LETTER LEFT HALF RING
[unassigned: U+0557–U+0558]
Ֆ
[U+0556]
Armenian ՚
[U+055A]

Translingual

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Symbol

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ʻ

  1. Spiritus asper used in Wade-Giles romanization of Mandarin Chinese.
    Tʻai-pei or Taipei, capital of Taiwan (ROC)
    • 1898, Harlan P. Beach, Dawn on the Hills of Tʻang[1] (in English), New York, →OCLC, page 154:
      Chiang-su was the main centre of the great Tʻai Pʻing rebellion, Nanking being the rebel capital from 1853 to 1864.
    • 1904, C. D. Tenney, Geography of Asia[2] (in English), New York: MacMillan and Co, →OCLC, page 6:
      Chʻing-wang-tao (秦皇島) is a deep water port on the Gulf of Pechili, and is important as a port for the shipping of coal, and also as the winter port for the exports and imports of Tientsin.
    • 1913, Kinosuke Inouye, “The Coal Resources of Manchuria”, in The Coal Resources of the World[3], volume 1 (in English), Morang & Co. Limited, →OCLC, page 256:
      Coal is found in several places along the Hun-chiang on the north-east of Tʻung-hua.
    • For more quotations using this term, see Citations:ʻ.
  2. (IPA, obsolete) light aspiration
  3. (ALA-LC romanization) transliteration of the Semitic letter ayin.
    Synonyms: ʿ, ʽ,
  4. (international standards) Transliterates Perso-Arabic letter ع in Indic languages.

Usage notes

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The spiritus asper was added to the IPA for light aspiration in 1929, with a full letter ⟨h⟩ used for heavy aspiration. Sometime in the 1970s the superscript ʰ was approved as an alternative to the spiritus asper, and in 1979 the other two options were withdrawn.

Further reading

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Armenian

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Diacritic

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ʻ

  1. In dialectological notation, used to indicate the aspiration of բ (b), դ (d), գ (g), ձ (j) and ջ (ǰ) in some dialects: բʻ (), դʻ (), գʻ (), ձʻ (), ջʻ (ǰʻ).

Usage notes

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According to the Unicode Standard, there is no left half ring in Armenian. Unicode character U+0559 is not used. It appears that this character is a duplicate character, which was encoded to represent U+02BB MODIFIER LETTER TURNED COMMA, used in Armenian transliteration. U+02BB is preferred for this purpose.[1]

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Further reading

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  • Ačaṙean, Hračʻeay (1911) Hay barbaṙagitutʻiwn. Uruagic ew dasaworutʻiwn hay barbaṙneri (barbaṙagitakan kʻartēsov) [Armenian dialectology: A sketch and classification of Armenian dialects (with a dialect map)] (Ēminean azgagrakan žoġovacu; 8) (in Armenian), Moscow and Nor Nakhichevan: Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages, page 10
  • Ovsepjan, L. S., Gevorkjan, G. G. (2013) “Армянские диалекты (общий обзор) [Armenian dialects (general overview)]”, in Yuri B.Koryakov and Andrej A. Kibrik, editors, Языки мира: Реликтовые индоевропейские языки Передней и Центральной Азии [Languages of the World: Relict Indo-European languages of Western and Central Asia]‎[5] (in Russian), Moscow: Academia, page 324

References

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Hawaiian

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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ʻ

  1. The thirteenth letter of the Hawaiian alphabet, called ʻokina and written in the Latin script.

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Khoekhoe

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Letter

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ʻ

  1. (obsolete) the alveolar clicks, modern ⟨ǃ⟩. (Besides plain ⟨ʻ⟩, it is also used for the alveolar click consonants ʻk ʻg ʻn ʻh ʻkh.)
    See also , ʼ, .

Tongan

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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ʻ

  1. The seventeenth letter of the Tongan alphabet, called fakauʻa and written in the Latin script.

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Uzbek

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Diacritical mark

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ʻ

  1. A component of the Latin-script letters and .