U+7591, 疑
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7591

[U+7590]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7592]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 103, +9, 14 strokes, cangjie input 心大弓戈人 (PKNIO), four-corner 27481, composition𠤕)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 768, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22007
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1178, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2751, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+7591

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
         
from the Mawangdui manuscripts, Western Han.

Originally an ideogrammic compound (會意): or (standing human figure) + [Term?] (tilted head with open mouth) + (cane) – a man with a cane looking around with his mouth wide open, not know where to go – to be confused; to doubt. Compare: and , both showing the "open-mouth" component but on a seated figure. In the oracle bone script and bronze inscriptions, or = + (“foot; toes”) was often added to indicate travelling or movement.

Various components were been added later, e.g. in the bronze script of Western Zhou, in the Qin-style scripts including the proto-clerical script, and in the early clerical script of Western Han. Meanwhile the main graphical element showing a standing figure eventually became 𠤕 or sometimes as in the Chu-style script (shown in the table). The Chu also added a (“heart”) component indicating "the mind".

The Shuowen, in which headwords were written in the Qin-style seal script, interpreted the character as “a child standing on an obstructed road to compare the paths”: semantic (child) + semantic (to be obstructed) + semantic (to compare) + phonetic (OC *hliʔ). Duan Yucai's commentary on Shuowen offered an alternative interpretation, pointing out that was unlikely to have a the phonetic component: semantic (child) + semantic 𠤕 (uncertain) + phonetic (OC *kjɯʔ). However, it is unlikely that any of the currently extant components had once indicated the pronunciation. Zhengzhang (2003) conjectured that the were a deformed (OC *ŋʷɯ) that had been the phonetic component.

The current form is derived from the Qin–Han clerical scripts, where on the right-hand side the elements + or + have recombined into + .

EtymologyEdit

Perhaps related to (OC *ŋɯːs, “to obstruct”) (Schuessler, 2007).

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /i³⁵/
Harbin /i²⁴/
Tianjin /i⁴⁵/
Jinan /i⁴²/
Qingdao /i⁴²/
Zhengzhou /i⁴²/
Xi'an /ni²⁴/
Xining /ji²⁴/
Yinchuan /i⁵³/
Lanzhou /i⁵³/
Ürümqi /i⁵¹/
Wuhan /ni²¹³/
Chengdu /ȵi³¹/
Guiyang /ni²¹/
/i²¹/
Kunming /ni³¹/
Nanjing /i²⁴/
Hefei /zz̩⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /i¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵi¹³/
Hohhot /i³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵi²³/
Suzhou /ȵi¹³/
Hangzhou /ȵi²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ni⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ȵi⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵi¹³/
Xiangtan /ȵi¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵi⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋi¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋi¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ji²¹/
Nanning /ni²¹/
Hong Kong /ji²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gi³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋi⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋi²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /gi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋi³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋɨ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋie/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɨ/
Li
Rong
/ŋiə/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭə/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngi ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ](r)ə/ (< uvular)
English doubt

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14894
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋɯ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to doubt; to question (Antonym : )
    1. doubtful
    2. question; query
  2. to suspect
    1. suspicious
  3. 62nd tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "doubt, unconfidence" (𝍃)
  4. as if
    銀河九天 [MSC, trad.]
    银河九天 [MSC, simp.]
    From: Li Bai: The Waterfall on Mount Lu (望廬山瀑布), 701 A.D.–762 A.D.
    Fēi liú zhí xià sān qiān chǐ, shì yínhé luò jiǔtiān. [Pinyin]
    Its torrent dashes down three thousand feet from high / As if the Silver River fell from the blue sky.
  5. () (Chinese linguistics) the Middle Chinese initial of (MC ŋɨ)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. doubt
  2. suspect

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ui, eung) (hangeul , , revised ui, eung, McCune–Reischauer ŭi, ŭng, Yale uy, ung)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: nghi

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.