See also:
U+9752, 青
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9752

[U+9751]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9753]
U+2ED8, ⻘
CJK RADICAL BLUE

[U+2ED7]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2ED9]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order (Japan)
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 174, +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 手一月 (QMB), four-corner 50227, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: not present, would follow page 1381, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42564
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1893, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4046, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9752

Chinese

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Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (growth of plants) + (cinnabar). Cinnabar was used for dyeing, and by extension, came to imply “color” in general, giving the combined meaning “color of growing plants” → “blue-green”.

In the modern glyph, the top component is reduced to , and the bottom component resembles the unrelated (yuè, moon).

The second-round simplified form of the character is based on the calligraphic form of the character.

Etymology 1

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trad. /
simp.
2nd round simp. 𰀈
alternative forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-riŋ ~ s-r(j)aŋ (to live; to be alive; to give birth; raw; green). Cognate with (OC *sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs, “to live”), (OC *sʰaːŋ, “green; blue”), (OC *sleŋs, “nature”), (OC *sleŋs, “surname”). Note (OC *sʰaːŋ) may be an old dialect variant of (OC *sʰleːŋ) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • ceng1 - vernacular;
  • cing1 - literary.
Note:
  • tiang1 - vernacular;
  • ten1 - literary.
Note:
  • qiang1 - vernacular;
  • qin1 - literary.
Note:
  • Sixian:
    • chhiâng - vernacular;
    • chhîn - literary.
Note:
  • qi1 - vernacular (e.g. 青菜 (qīngcài));
  • qing1 - literary.
Note:
  • cháng - vernacular;
  • chéng - literary.
Note:
  • chăng - vernacular;
  • chĭng - literary.
Note:
  • chhiⁿ/chheⁿ/seⁿ - vernacular;
  • chheng/seng - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (14)
Final () (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter tsheng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰeŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰeŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰɛŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰɛjŋ/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰeŋ/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰieŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰieŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qīng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cing1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qīng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsheng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s.r̥]ˁeŋ/
English green or blue

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11362
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰleːŋ/
Notes
Definitions
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  1. blue-green; blue (of sky, stone etc.); green (of grass, plants, mountain etc.)
      ―  qīngtiān  ―  blue sky
      ―  qīngjīn  ―  blue veins
      ―  qīngcǎo  ―  green grass
    山綠水山绿水  ―  qīngshānlǜshuǐ  ―  green hills and rivers
  2. blue-green ("grue")-colored items
    1. green grass
        ―  qīng  ―  to go on an outing to the countryside during spring
    2. crops that have not yet ripened
      黃不接黄不接  ―  qīnghuángbùjiē  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  3. black (of hair, cloth, silk thread etc.)
      ―  qīng  ―  black hair
  4. (Southern Min) green
    紅燈红灯 [Hokkien]  ―  chheⁿ-âng-teng [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  traffic light
  5. (Hong Kong) lime green
    BB [Cantonese]  ―  ceng1 bi1 bi1 [Jyutping]  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  6. young; adolescent
      ―  qīngnián  ―  youth; adolescence
      ―  qīngchūn  ―  youth
  7. Short for 青年 (qīngnián).
    老中  ―  lǎozhōngqīng  ―  the old, the middle-aged and the young
      ―  zhīqīng  ―  zhiqing, ""educated youth"
      ―  juéqīng  ―  "politically-awakened youth"
  8. (literary, obsolete) east
  9. (literary, obsolete) spring
  10. Short for 青海 (Qīnghǎi, “Qinghai Province”).
    鐵路铁路  ―  Qīng Zàng tiělù  ―  Qinghai-Tibet Railway
  11. a surname
Usage notes
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The meaning for “blue” and “black” is more commonly used in Classical Chinese, while in modern Chinese, the meaning for “green” is more common. In fact, covered both green and blue ("grue") until modern times. For example, 青山綠水青山绿水 (qīngshānlǜshuǐ, hill or water green in color), 蘋果苹果 (qīng píngguǒ, green apple). However, there are still some expressions for the meaning of blue, e.g. 青天 (qīngtiān, blue sky), 青出於藍青出于蓝 (qīngchūyúlán, blue comes from indigo; someone performing better than their teacher)

In Cantonese, the use of to mean “black” is still used in circumstances where (hak1) would be considered inauspicious, as it is a near-homophone of (hat1, beggar). For example, 黑衣 (hak1 ji1) used to describe clothing would be a near-homophone of both beggar and a beggar's garment.

See also
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Compounds
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Descendants
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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (せい) (sei)
  • Korean: 청(靑) (cheong)
  • Vietnamese: thanh ()

Others:

Pronunciation 2

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Definitions
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  1. Alternative form of (jīng)
    Used in 青青 (qīngqīng).

Etymology 2

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trad.
simp. #

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Hokkien) Alternative form of (chhiⁿ)
    1. fresh
    2. (of clothes) bright; pretty; neat

References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. blue, cyan, azure
  2. (obsolete, poetic) green
  3. immature, unripe, young
  4. publication, record
  5. east

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
あお
Grade: 1
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

/sawo/ (uncertain, may be compound as opposed to root)/awo//ao/

From Old Japanese, ultimately from Proto-Japonic *awo.[1]

Appears as the latter part in older compounds with an -s- infix or prefix. It is unclear if this leading /s/ is indicative of an earlier form (sawo), or if this was an addition for euphony to avoid vowel clusters, or for other reasons. This /s/ is also seen in (あめ) (ame, rain, becoming same in old compounds) and (いね) (ine, rice, becoming shine in old compounds).

Given that this /s/ only ever appears interstitially, and given the semantics, this /s/ may be cognate with Korean interfix (-s-) used to mark possession; compare German -s-.

Pronunciation

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  • (Tokyo) [áꜜò] (Atamadaka – [1])[2]
  • IPA(key): [a̠o̞]
  • Audio:(file)

Noun

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(あお) (aoあを (awo)?

  1. blue
    1. one of three primary colors
    2. a shade of blue to blue green
  2. (dated) green
    (あお)(りん)()ao ringogreen apple
  3. Short for 青信号 (aoshingō): green light (traffic light color, as the color of plants)
    Antonym: (aka)
  4. the black, bluish color of a horse's hair; also, such a horse
    Synonym: 青毛 (aoge)
    • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 39:
      [4]
      Auo. アヲ (青) 馬の毛色で, 全体に黒くてみがあり, 両耳の内側に多少白いところのあるもの. この部分の毛も他の部分と同じようにすっかり黒い時には, Curo(黒)と呼ばれる.
  5. (card games) Short for 青短, 青丹 (aotan): one of the three hanafuda cards bearing a blue 短冊 (tanzaku, narrow card used for poetry); a (yaku) of the three aotan cards, worth 3 points
  6. (card games) a blue card in 天正カルタ (Tenshō karuta)
  7. Short for 青本 (aohon): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  8. Short for 青銭 (aosen): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
Derived terms
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See also
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Colors in Japanese · (いろ) (iro) (layout · text)
     (しろ) (shiro)      (はい)(いろ) (haiiro),
(ねずみ)(いろ) (nezumiiro) (dated)
     (くろ) (kuro)
             (あか) (aka); (しん)() (shinku),
クリムゾン (kurimuzon),
(べに)(いろ) (beniiro),
(くれない)(いろ) (kurenaiiro),
(あかね)(いろ) (akaneiro)
             オレンジ (orenji),
(だいだい)(いろ) (daidaiiro); (ちゃ)(いろ) (chairo),
(かっ)(しょく) (kasshoku)
             ()(いろ) (kiiro); クリーム(いろ) (kurīmuiro)
             ()(みどり) (kimidori)              (みどり) (midori),
(あお) (ao) (dated)
             若緑(わかみどり) (wakamidori)
             シアン (shian); (かも)羽色(はねいろ) (kamo no hane iro)              (みず)(いろ) (mizuiro)              (あお) (ao)
             (すみれ)(いろ) (sumireiro); (あい)(いろ) (aiiro),
インジゴ (injigo)
             マゼンタ (mazenta),
赤紫(あかむらさき) (akamurasaki); (むらさき) (murasaki)
             ピンク (pinku),
(もも)(いろ) (momoiro)

Prefix

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(あお) (ao-あを (awo)?

  1. unripe, young
Derived terms
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Proper noun

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(あお) (Aoあを (awo)?

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: 1
on’yomi
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From Middle Chinese (MC tsheng).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(せい) (sei

  1. the color blue

Proper noun

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(せい) (Sei

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
しい
Grade: 1
sōon
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

Unknown. The reading might be an obscure term from Old Japanese or dialect. The use of the character arises from its 宋音(そうおん) (sōon, Song-dynasty pronunciation).[5]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(しい) (shii

  1. (rare, archaic, mythology) a beast that looks like a weasel, and is said to have lived in present-day Fukuoka and Yamaguchi prefectures
  2. (rare, archaic, mythology) a beast that looks like a wolf, and is said to have appeared around Mount Yoshino

References

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  1. ^ Thomas Pellard. Ryukyuan perspectives on the proto-Japonic vowel system. Frellesvig, Bjarke; Sells, Peter. Japanese/Korean Linguistics 20, CSLI Publications, pp.81–96, 2013.
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Nakai, Yukihiko, editor (2002), 京阪系アクセント辞典 [A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Bensei, →ISBN
  4. ^ Doi, Tadao (1603–1604) Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1980, →ISBN.
  5. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun 푸를 (pureul cheong))

  1. Alternative form of (blue; green)

References

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: thanh
: Nôm readings: thanh, thênh, xanh

  1. green
  2. blue

Compounds

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References

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