U+521D, 初
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-521D

[U+521C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+521E]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 18, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 中尸竹 (LSH), four-corner 37220, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 137, character 33
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1911
  • Dae Jaweon: page 310, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 327, character 22
  • Unihan data for U+521D

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意): (clothes) + (knife; to cut) – start making clothes by cutting the cloth.

The various 𢀰-shaped glyphs are or are evolved from Zetian characters.

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • chhoe/chhe - vernacular;
  • chho͘ - literary.
Note:
  • ciu1 - only when referring to days 1-10 of the month in the Chinese calendar;
  • co1 - all other senses.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (19)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter tsrhjo
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ʃʰɨʌ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈ͡ʂʰiɔ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ʃʰiɔ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈ͡ʂʰɨə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ʃʰiɔ/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ʃʰĭo/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʈ͡ʂʰi̯wo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chū
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    co1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chū
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsrhjo ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ts]ʰra/
    English beginning

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1589
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰra/

    Definitions edit

    1. initial; inceptive
        ―  chūxià  ―  early summer
    2. first
        ―  chūxuě  ―  first snow
        ―  chūliàn  ―  first love
    3. prefix of dates from 1st to 10th in the Chinese calendar
        ―  chūsān  ―  third day of a lunar month
    4. original
        ―  chūzhōng  ―  one’s initial intention; original idea
    5. elementary; basic
        ―  chū  ―  elementary
    6. beginning; start
      四月  ―  sìyuè chū  ―  early April
        ―  mínchū  ―  beginning of the Republic of China era
    7. just
      出茅廬出茅庐  ―  chūchūmáolú  ―  to have just begun one's career without any experience (literally, “to have just come out of one's thatched cottage”)
      如夢如梦  ―  rúmèngchūxǐng  ―  to suddenly realize; to wake up to reality (literally, “as if one has just waken up from a dream”)

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    • Vietnamese: xưa

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    はつ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    ⟨patu⟩/ɸat͡su//hat͡su/

    From Old Japanese.

    Possible cognates include 始め (hajime, beginning) and (ha, edge of something).

    Pronunciation edit

    Prefix edit

    (はつ) (hatsu-

    1. the first..., initial..., new...
    Derived terms edit

    Noun edit

    (はつ) (hatsu

    1. a first, start, a beginning
      Antonym: (sue)
      今年(ことし)(はつ)コンサートkotoshi hatsu no konsātothe first concert of this year
    2. (slang) first sexual relations, one's first time
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    うい
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    /uɸi//uwi//ui/

    First attested in the Kokin Wakashū of roughly 905-914 CE,[2] and assumed to be inherited from Old Japanese.

    There is an apparently related term (ubu) of overlapping synonymous meaning, first attested in the early 1000s. It is unclear how these two terms are related: one might be a derivation of the other, or the two might derive separately via other processes.

    Both ui and ubu appear to be related to verb 生む (umu, to birth), from the sense of "first of something since one has been born".

    Martin suggests that this might be a fusion of 生む (umu, to birth) +‎ (hi, day), literally birthday.[3] However, the meaning of any such compound would be the noun birthday with a sense of "the day a woman gives birth" rather than "the day someone is born". Also, phonologically, this would be expected to result in ubi: /umu/ + /pi//umupi//umpi//ubi/.

    Possibly cognate with (ue, above, possibly via the sense of "upstream → earlier") or classical verb 生ふ (ancient opu, classical ofu, modern ou, “to grow).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (うい) (uiうひ (ufi)?

    1. [from early 900s] a first, start
    Derived terms edit

    Prefix edit

    (うい) (ui-うひ (ufi)?

    1. [from early 900s] the first of something
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    うぶ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    初心

    From stem up- cognate with ui (historical uhi) above. Cause of the shift in voicing is uncertain. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation edit

    Adjective edit

    (うぶ) (ubu-na (adnominal (うぶ) (ubu na), adverbial (うぶ) (ubu ni))

    1. innocent
    2. inexperienced, green
    Inflection edit
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 4 edit

    Kanji in this term
    しょ
    Grade: 4
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC tsrhjo).

    Compare Min Nan (chho͘).

    Affix edit

    (しょ) (sho

    1. beginning, start
    2. first, initial
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 5 edit

    Kanji in this term
    そ(め) > ぞ(め)
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    [suffix] for the first time, typically in the current year
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling (uncommon) of the above term.)

    Etymology 6 edit

    Kanji in this term
    はじ(め)
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    Nominalization of 始め (hajime, beginning, first).

    Proper noun edit

    (はじめ) (Hajime

    1. a male given name

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
    3. ^ Martin, Samuel E. (1987) The Japanese Language Through Time, New Haven, London: Yale University Press, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 처음 (cheo'eum cho))

    1. Hanja form? of (beginning; start).

    Compounds edit

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *patu.

    Cognate with Japanese (hatsu-).

    Pronunciation edit

    Prefix edit

    (はち) (hachi-

    1. the first..., initial..., new...

    Derived terms edit

    Old Japanese edit

    Etymology edit

    From Proto-Japonic *patu.

    Possible cognates include 始め (pazime, beginning), 僅か (patuka, faint), and (pa, edge of something).

    Prefix edit

    (patu-) (kana はつ)

    1. the first..., initial..., new...

    Derived terms edit

    Descendants edit

    • Japanese: (hatsu-)

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: ((sở)(tồ)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: xưa[1][2][3][4][5], [1][2][3][5], [1][2][3], thơ[1][3][4], sờ[1]

    1. chữ Hán form of (in the initial stage; primary; elementary).
    2. Nôm form of xưa (old; ancient; a long time ago).

    Compounds edit

    References edit