See also: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 𡚦, and 𠨰
U+5973, 女
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5973

[U+5972]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5974]
U+F981, 女
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F981

[U+F980]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F982]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • (U+2F25, Kangxi radical)

Han characterEdit

(radical 38, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 女 (V), four-corner 40400, composition𡿨(GJKV) or ⿻𡿨𠂇(HT))

  1. Kangxi radical #38, .

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 254, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6036
  • Dae Jaweon: page 516, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1023, character 23
  • Unihan data for U+5973

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Pictogram (象形): a woman with breasts kneeling or standing. In modern form turned on left side: enclosed area is remnant of left breast (character's left, depicted woman's right), while right breast has disappeared. Graphically cognate to (, “mother”), which has developed similarly, but also includes dots for nipples and has retained both breasts.

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠨰
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
 
女性

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *nja-ŋ/k (woman).

Pronunciation 2 is an exoactive derivation of pronunciation 1 (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • neoi5-2 - “daughter; girlfriend; girl”;
  • neoi5-1 - “queen”.
  • Gan
  • Note:
    • nyy3 - usual pronunciation, including “daughter”;
    • nyyn3 - “daughter”.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • Xiamen:
      • lú - more common.
    • Zhangzhou:
      • lí - more common.
    • Quanzhou:
      • lír - more common;
      • lú - colloquial variant.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ny²¹⁴/
    Harbin /ny²¹³/
    Tianjin /nuei¹³/
    /ny¹³/
    Jinan /ȵy⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /ny⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ny⁵³/
    Xi'an /ny⁵³/
    Xining /mji⁵³/
    Yinchuan /ny⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ȵy⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /ȵy⁵¹/
    Wuhan /y⁴²/
    Chengdu /ȵy⁵³/
    Guiyang /ni⁴²/
    Kunming /ni⁵³/
    Nanjing /ly²¹²/
    Hefei /zz̩ʷ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /ny⁵³/
    Pingyao /nzz̩ʷ⁵³/ ~子
    /ȵy⁵³/ ~貓
    Hohhot /ny⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵy²³/
    Suzhou /ȵy³¹/
    Hangzhou /nz̩ʷ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ȵy³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /ny³⁵/
    Tunxi /ȵy²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵy⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /ȵy⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵy²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /n̩³¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋ̍³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nøy²³/
    Nanning /ny²⁴/
    Hong Kong /nøy¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lu⁵³/
    /li⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ny³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ny²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nɯŋ⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nu²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (12)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɳɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɳiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /niɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɳɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /niɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /nĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ni̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nrjoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nraʔ/
    English female

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 9616
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*naʔ/
    DefinitionsEdit

    1. woman
      Antonym: (nán)
        ―  rén  ―  woman
        ―  de  ―  woman; female
    2. (for people) female
      ,
      演員 / 演员  ―  yī ge yǎnyuán  ―  an actress
      士兵 / 士兵  ―  yī ge shìbīng  ―  a female soldier
    3. daughter (Classifier: c;  c)
        ―    ―  second daughter
      / [Cantonese]  ―  Keoi5 hai6 ngo5 go3 neoi5-2. [Jyutping]  ―  She's my daughter.
    4. (Cantonese) girl; young female (Classifier: c;  c)
      / [Cantonese]  ―  leng3 neoi5-2 [Jyutping]  ―  pretty girl
    5. (Cantonese, slang) girlfriend (Classifier: c)
    6. (Cantonese, card games) queen (Classifier: c;  c)
    7. (astronomy) the Girl (a Chinese constellation near Aquarius, 10th of the Twenty-Eight Mansions and part of the Black Turtle)
    SynonymsEdit
    CompoundsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (じょ) (jo)
    • Korean: (, yeo)
    • Vietnamese: nữ ()

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (12)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɳɨʌH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɳiɔH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /niɔH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɳɨə̆H/
    Li
    Rong
    /niɔH/
    Wang
    Li
    /nĭoH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ni̯woH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nrjoH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nraʔ-s/
    English give as a wife

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 9618
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nas/
    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to give one's daughter in marriage; to give as wife

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“you”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. woman
    2. daughter

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    おんな
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨womi1na⟩ → */womʲina//womʉna//wonːa//onːa/

    Shift from Old Japanese wominaomina (see below).

    Now one of the standard Japanese words for "a woman".

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (おんな) (onna (historical kana をんな)

    1. a woman
      • 1999 July 5, “ざんしゅじょ [The Beheading Beauty]”, in BOOSTER 3, Konami:
        その()(ぼう)とはうらはらに、カタナで(かず)(おお)くの(くび)をはねてきた(おんな)
        Sono bibō to wa urahara ni, katana de kazuōku no kubi o hanetekita onna.
        A lady who has decapitated a great many with her katana, which is in stark contrast to her beautiful appearance.
      Antonym: (otoko)
    2. a wife
      Synonyms: (tsuma), 女房 (nyōbō)
    3. a mistress, concubine
      Synonyms: 愛人 (aijin), 情婦 (jōfu), (mekake)
    4. a maid
      Synonyms: 下女 (gejo), 女中 (jochū)
    5. a prostitute
      Synonyms: 淫売婦 (inbaifu), 女郎 (jorō), 売春婦 (baishunfu), 遊女 (yūjo)
    6. a woman's appearance or quality
    7. a feminine object
    8. the object in a pairing which is smaller, gentler, etc. than the other
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit
    ProverbsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    おみな
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨womi1na⟩ → */womʲina//omina/

    From Old Japanese.[3]

    The initial /wo/ expressed "small, youth" and contrasted with /o/ "grown, old" (as in (omina, old woman)), while the medial /mi/ is cognate with (me, female, woman, see below). According to Frellesvig (2010), proto-Japonic /e/ became Old Japanese [je] in final position and [i] elsewhere; analogous with PJ /o/, which became OJ [wo] in final position and [u] elsewhere (though PJ /i/ and /u/ also existed, confer Old Japanese 's two readings /po/ & /pu/ in Western & Eastern Old Japanese, respectively (Vovin, 2017)).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (おみな) (omina (historical kana をみな)

    1. (archaic) a young woman
    2. (archaic) a woman
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (おみな) (Omina (historical kana をみな)

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨me1 → */mʲe//me/

    From Old Japanese,[4][5] from Proto-Japonic *mya.

    Appears to be distinct from (⟨me2 → me, eye).

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    () (me

    1. a woman
      Antonym: (o)
    2. a wife
      • c. 890, Taketori Monogatari (page 3)[6]
        ...()(をんな)にあづけてやしなはす。
        ...me no onna ni azukete yashinawasu.
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      Synonym: (tsuma)
      Antonym: (o)
    3. a female
      Antonym: , , (o)
    Usage notesEdit

    Used more in compounds than on its own.

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    ⟨womi1na⟩ → */womʲina//womʉna//woũna//woːna//oːna/

    Variant shift from Old Japanese wominaomina (see above).

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (おうな) (ōna (historical kana をうな)

    1. (archaic) a young woman

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    /wonːa//wona//ona/

    Shift from onna (see above).

    NounEdit

    (おな) (ona (historical kana をな)

    1. (obsolete) a young woman

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    /wona//wonaː//onaː/

    Long-pronounced form of ona (see above).

    NounEdit

    (おなあ) (onā (historical kana をなあ)

    1. (obsolete) a young woman

    Etymology 7Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    じょ
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    /dɨo//d͡ʑo/

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɳɨʌX, ɳɨʌH).

    NounEdit

    (じょ) (jo (historical kana ぢよ)

    1. a woman, especially an actress or a prostitute

    Proper nounEdit

    (じょ) (Jo (historical kana ぢよ)

    1. (Chinese astronomy) the Girl constellation, one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions
      Synonyms: うるき星 (Urukiboshi), 女宿 (Joshuku)

    SuffixEdit

    (じょ) (-jo (historical kana ぢよ)

    1. (historical) suffixed to names of female figures in the Edo period

    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ womina at OxFord-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese
    4. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    5. ^ mye at OxFord-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese
    6. ^ Horiuchi, Hideaki; Ken Akiyama (1997) Taketori Monogatari, Ise Monogatari, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 계집 (gyejip nyeo), South Korea 계집 (gyejip yeo))

    1. Hanja form? of (female; woman).

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: nữ ((ni)(lữ)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], nhữ ((nhẫn)(dữ)(thiết))[1][5]
    : Nôm readings: nợ[1][2][3][6][4][5][7], nữa[1][2][3][4][5][7], nữ[1][2][6][4][7], nỡ[1][2][3][6], nớ[3][6][4][5], nhỡ[1][3][6], lỡ[2][3][6], nửa[1][3], nhớ[1], nự[3]

    1. Hán tự form of nữ (female).
    2. Hán tự form of nhữ ((obsolete) you).
    3. Nôm form of nợ (debt; to owe).
    4. Nôm form of nữa (more; further).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit