U+4E42, 乂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E42

[U+4E41]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E43]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 4, 丿+1, 2 strokes, cangjie input (K) or 難大 (XK), four-corner 40000, composition 丿)

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 81, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 111
  • Dae Jaweon: page 165, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 31, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E42

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) — a tool similar to a knife (Li Xueqing, 2012).

Etymology

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Sense "regulate, govern, orderly" is derived from "to mow, cut, reap"; this sense's origin is ambiguous, possibly from "to cut" > "to trim", etc. (Schuessler, 2007). If so, see () for etymology.

Alternatively, from () (ibid.)

Pronunciation 1

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (27)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ngjojH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨɐiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋiɐiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiɐiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɨajH/
Li
Rong
/ŋiɐiH/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭɐiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi̯ɐiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ngai6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjojH › ‹ ngjojH ›
Old
Chinese
/*ŋa[t]-s/ /*ŋa[t]-s/
English mow, cut (v.) mow; regulate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14957
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋads/

Definitions

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  1. Original form of (, “to weed; to mow”).
  2. to govern; to control; to manage; to regulate
  3. to nurture

Compounds

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Pronunciation 2

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Definitions

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  1. to discipline; to punish

Japanese

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Kanji

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(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings

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Korean

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Etymology 1

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Hanja

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(eumhun (bel ye))
(eumhun 다스릴 (daseuril ye))

  1. (obsolete) Hanja form? of (to weed; to mow).
  2. (obsolete) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (to weed; to mow).)
  3. (obsolete) Hanja form? of (to govern; to control; to manage).
  4. (obsolete) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (to govern; to control; to manage).)

Etymology 2

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Hanja

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(eumhun 징계할 (jinggyehal ae))

  1. (obsolete) Hanja form? of (to discipline; to punish).

References

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: nghệ, ngải

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References

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