See also: , , , , , and
U+672B, 末
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-672B

[U+672A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+672C]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 75, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 木十 (DJ), four-corner 50900, composition )

Derived characters

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Descendants

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 509, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14420
  • Dae Jaweon: page 891, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1150, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+672B

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Ideogram (指事) : a tree () with its top highlighted with an extra stroke, implying the meaning of “apex”; contrast , .

Etymology 1

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Pronunciation

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Note:
  • boa̍h - vernacular (“powder”);
  • boa̍t - literary.
Note:
  • bhuah8 - vernacular;
  • muêg8, muag8 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /mo⁵¹/
Harbin /mɤ⁵³/
Tianjin /mo⁵³/
Jinan /mə²¹/
Qingdao /mə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /mo²⁴/
Xi'an /mo²¹/
Xining /mɔ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /muə¹³/
Lanzhou /mə¹³/ ~尾
/mə⁴⁴²/ ~~子
Ürümqi /mɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /mo²¹³/
Chengdu /mo³¹/
Guiyang /mo²¹/
Kunming /mo³¹/
Nanjing /moʔ⁵/
Hefei /mɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /maʔ²/
Pingyao /mʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /maʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /məʔ¹/
Suzhou /məʔ³/
Hangzhou /moʔ²/
Wenzhou /mø²¹³/
Hui Shexian /mɔ²²/
Tunxi /mo¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /mo²⁴/
Xiangtan /mo²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /mɵʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /mat̚⁵/
Taoyuan /mɑt̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mut̚²/
Nanning /mut̚²²/
Hong Kong /mut̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /buat̚⁵/
/buaʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /muaʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /muɛ⁴²/
Shantou (Teochew) /muak̚⁵/
/buaʔ⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /muak̚⁵/
/muak̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (64)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter mat
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/muɑt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/mʷɑt̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/muɑt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mwat̚/
Li
Rong
/muɑt̚/
Wang
Li
/muɑt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/muɑt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
mut6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ mat ›
Old
Chinese
/*mˁat/
English end of a branch

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9223
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*maːd/

Definitions

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  1. tip; treetop
      ―  shāo  ―  tip; end
  2. (by extension) effect; result
      ―  běn  ―  cause and effect
  3. late or the last stage; conclusion; close
    Antonyms: (shǒu), (chū), (shǐ)
      ―  yuè  ―  month-end
      ―  Míng Qīng chū  ―  late-Ming and early-Qing era
    提到  ―  wén tídào  ―  Toward the end of the article, it was mentioned…
  4. final; the last; concluding; closing; terminal
    Antonyms: (shǒu), (chū), (shǐ)
      ―  dài  ―  the last (in one's lineage)
      ―    ―  doomsday; apocalypse
    時期时期  ―  fǎ shíqī  ―  Dharma-ending age
  5. insignificant; trivial; inferior; low-priority; low-class
    捨本逐舍本逐  ―  shěběnzhú  ―  pursuing the unimportant while neglecting the essential
  6. powder; fine particulate matter
      ―  fěn  ―  powder
  7. (literary, dated) not; none; no (negative indicator)
    Synonyms: (wèi), ,
  8. mo (a category of male roles in traditional Chinese theatre and opera)

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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Pronunciation 1

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  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /mo⁵¹/
Harbin /mɤ⁵³/
Tianjin /mo⁵³/
Jinan /mə²¹/
Qingdao /mə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /mo²⁴/
Xi'an /mo²¹/
Xining /mɔ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /muə¹³/
Lanzhou /mə¹³/ ~尾
/mə⁴⁴²/ ~~子
Ürümqi /mɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /mo²¹³/
Chengdu /mo³¹/
Guiyang /mo²¹/
Kunming /mo³¹/
Nanjing /moʔ⁵/
Hefei /mɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /maʔ²/
Pingyao /mʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /maʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /məʔ¹/
Suzhou /məʔ³/
Hangzhou /moʔ²/
Wenzhou /mø²¹³/
Hui Shexian /mɔ²²/
Tunxi /mo¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /mo²⁴/
Xiangtan /mo²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /mɵʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /mat̚⁵/
Taoyuan /mɑt̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mut̚²/
Nanning /mut̚²²/
Hong Kong /mut̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /buat̚⁵/
/buaʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /muaʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /muɛ⁴²/
Shantou (Teochew) /muak̚⁵/
/buaʔ⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /muak̚⁵/
/muak̚³/
Definitions
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  1. Same as (me).

Pronunciation 2

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Definitions
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(Northern Wu)

  1. Used to mark a conditional subordinate clause.
    要是一家頭幫忙 [Shanghainese, trad.]
    要是一家头帮忙 [Shanghainese, simp.]
    5iau-zy 6non 7iq-ka-deu 6nau-veq-tau-meq 5ciau-gheq 6gnin 6le 1paon-maon [Wugniu]
    If you can’t carry it on your own, ask for someone to help.
    蘇州告訴一聲 [Shanghainese, trad.]
    苏州告诉一声 [Shanghainese, simp.]
    From: 2007, Qian Nairong, 上海话大词典, page 309
    6non 8veq-chi 1su-tseu-meq 5iau 5kau-su 6ngu 7iq-san [Wugniu]
    If you're not going to Suzhou, let me know.
  2. Used to mark the topic in a topic-comment construction.
    衣裳已經 [Shanghainese, trad.]
    衣裳已经 [Shanghainese, simp.]
    From: 2007, Qian Nairong, 上海话大词典, page 309
    1shi-i-zaon-meq 6ngu 5i-cin 6ma-leq 6lian-ci [Wugniu]
    As for the new clothes, I've already bought two of them.

Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. tip, top
  2. end, terminal

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
すえ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Kojiki of 712.[1]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(すえ) (sueすゑ (suwe)?

  1. [from 720] the tip or top of a plant
    1. a twig or shoot
      Synonym: 枝先 (edasaki)
    2. a treetop
      Synonym: (kozue)
  2. [from 712] the tip or end of something
    Synonyms: (saki), 先端 (sentan)
  3. [from 720] the top or peak of a mountain
    Synonyms: (itadaki), 山頂 (sanchō)
  4. [from 1205] the edge or verge of a road or field
    Synonym: 外れ (hazure)
  5. [from early 1000s] a descendant
    Synonyms: 足末 (anasue), 子孫 (shison)
  6. [from 720] the future, later, after
    Synonyms: (future) 未来 (mirai), (future) 将来 (shōrai), (later) (nochi)
  7. [from early 800s] the end of a period of time
    Synonyms: 終わり (owari), 末期 (makki)
  8. [from early 1000s] (by extension) old age, the end period of a lifetime
    Synonym: 晩年 (bannen, literally evening years)
  9. [from 1435] (by extension) a degraded world, a world with low morals and corrupt politics
    Synonym: 末の世 (sue no yo)
  10. [from late 1500s] the end of a month, the latter third of a month
    Synonym: 下旬 (gejun)
  11. [from early 1000s] some time considerably later
  12. [from early 1000s] the result, outcome, or trace, remains of something having been done
    Synonyms: (result) 結果 (kekka), 名残 (nagori, trace, remains)
    (おも)(なや)(すえ)
    omoinayanda sue
    at the end of deliberation
  13. [from 1120] the direction in which someone has gone or will go
    Synonym: 方向 (hōkō)
  14. [from early 1000s] the youngest or last child
    Synonym: 末子 (sueko)
  15. [from early 1000s] youth, childhood
    Synonym: 幼少 (yōshō)
  16. [from early 1000s] the lowest seat, the seat at the foot of a table; the lowest rank
    Synonyms: 末座 (matsuza), 末席 (masseki), 下座 (shimoza)
  17. [from early 900s] the last two seven-mora stanzas or lines of a 短歌 (tanka) poem
    Synonyms: 下の句 (shimo no ku), 下句 (shimoku)
  18. [from early 1000s] the end of a sentence or word
    Synonyms: (of a sentence) 文末 (bunmatsu), (of a word) 語尾 (gobi)
  19. [from mid-1000s] the latter portion of a book or serial
    Synonym: 後編 (kōhen)
  20. [from 1182] the origin, the starting point
    Synonyms: (origin) (moto), (starting point) 起点 (kiten)
  21. [from 1435] (historical) the interior rooms of a palace or manor where maids worked; a maid who worked in such a household
    Synonym: 御末 (osue)
  22. [from 1682] a low class or grade; an item of low class or grade
    Synonyms: (low class or grade) 下級 (kakyū), (item of low class or grade) 下級品 (kakyūhin), (low class or grade) 下等 (katō), (item of low class or grade) 下等品 (katōhin)
  23. [unknown] something minor, a trifle
  24. [from 1179] downstream
    Synonyms: 川下 (kawashita), 下流 (karyū)
  25. [from late 800s] (kagura, music) in a 神楽 (kagura) performance, the seats on the right side facing the altar or shrine; the performers playing in these seats
    Synonym: 末方 (suekata)

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
うら
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Man'yōshū completed in 759.[1]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(うら) (ura

  1. [from 759] (archaic) the tip or top of a plant
    1. a twig or shoot
      Synonym: 枝先 (edasaki)
    2. a treetop
      Synonym: (kozue)
  2. [from late 1500s] (archaic) the tip or end of something
    Synonyms: (sue), (saki), 先端 (sentan)

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
うれ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Man'yōshū completed in 759.[1]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(うれ) (ure

  1. [from 759] (archaic) the tip or top of a plant
    1. a twig or shoot
      Synonym: 枝先 (edasaki)
    2. a treetop
      Synonym: (kozue)

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
まつ
Grade: 4
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC mat).

First attested in Japanese in 1120.[1]

Noun

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(まつ) (matsu

  1. [from 1120] powder
    Synonyms: (kona), 粉末 (funmatsu)
  2. [from 1804] (theater) in traditional Chinese theater, an extra, a minor part
    Synonym: (extra or minor part in any theatrical tradition) 端役 (hayaku)

Suffix

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(まつ) (-matsu

  1. [from at least 1911] the end of a period of time

See also

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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  4. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun (kkeut mal))

  1. (): the end, last, low
  2. (가루): flour, powder
  3. (허드레): something coarse, improper, inferior, trivial
    • 1431: 鄕藥採取月令[1] 十二月 (향약채취월령 십이월, hyang-yag-chaechwi-wolryeong sib-iwol):
      '"`UNIQref0000006DQINU`"' '"`UNIQref0000006EQINU`"' (기실향명말밤, gisilhyangmyeongmalbam, "The folk name of the water caltrop fruit is coarse chestnut.")
      芰實鄕名 末栗 (gisilhyangmyeongmalbam, gisil-hyangmyeong-malbam , "The folk name of the water caltrop fruit is coarse chestnut .)
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Compounds

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end, last
flour, powder
something coarse

References

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  1. ^ This was authored by several scholars at the direction of King Sejong of Yi Dynasty, concerning the folk medical herb gathering by month.
  2. ^ Cited by: 南廣祐 (1997). 敎學古語辭典. 敎學社. p. 538.
  3. ^ "" is a hanja rendering for 말밤(mal-bam), the origin of 마름(mareum, ) "water caltrop, water chestnut," literally, "coarse chestnut" such as "horse-chestnut".
  4. ^ Meaning "water caltrop, (also implausibly) water chestnut." Another likely literal reading is malryul.

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: mạt, mất, mặt, mết, mệt, mượt

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.