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U+4E43, 乃
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E43

[U+4E42]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E44]

Translingual

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Stroke order (Mainland China)
 
Stroke order
Traditional Chinese and Japanese
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 4, 丿+1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹尸 (NHS), four-corner 17227, composition 丿)

Derived characters

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Descendants

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 81, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 165, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 31, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E43

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
                   



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

From ancient 𠄎.

Etymology 1

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“you; your”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).
"then; now"
Related to Tibetan (na, postposition following temporal causes) (Coblin, 1986).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • nái - literary;
  • ná/nǎ - vernacular.
Note:
  • nai2 - “you, your”;
  • nai6 - “just; then; be”.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nai²¹⁴/
Harbin /nai²¹³/
Tianjin /nai¹³/
Jinan /nɛ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /nɛ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /nai⁵³/
Xi'an /nai⁵³/
Xining /nɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /nɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /lɛ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /nai⁵¹/
Wuhan /nai⁴²/
Chengdu /nai⁵³/
Guiyang /nai⁴²/
Kunming /næ⁵³/
Nanjing /lae²¹²/
Hefei /le̞²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /nai⁵³/
Pingyao /næ⁵³/
Hohhot /nɛ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /na²³/
Suzhou /ne̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ne̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /na³⁵/
Hui Shexian /na³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /lai⁴¹/
Xiangtan /nai⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /lai²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /nai⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /nɑi²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nai²³/
Nanning /nai²⁴/
Hong Kong /nai²³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /nai⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /nai³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /nai²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /nãi⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /nai²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter nojX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nʌiX/
Pan
Wuyun
/nəiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɒiX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nəjX/
Li
Rong
/nᴀiX/
Wang
Li
/nɒiX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑ̆iX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nǎi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
noi5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nǎi nǎi
Middle
Chinese
‹ nojX › ‹ nojX ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˁə(ŋ)ʔ/ /*nˁəʔ/
English your then

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9337
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯːʔ/

Definitions

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  1. (literary) you, your
  2. (literary) be
    失敗成功之母失败成功之母  ―  shībài nǎi chénggōng zhī mǔ  ―  failure is the mother of success
  3. (literary) then; hence
    Synonym: 於是于是 (yúshì)
  4. (literary) only then; not ... until
    Synonym: (cái)
  5. (literary) but
  6. (literary) surprisingly; unexpectedly
    Synonym: 竟然 (jìngrán)
  7. (Mainland China, Internet slang, cute-sounding) you (singular)
      ―  nǎiméng  ―  (cute-sounding variant of 你們) you (plural)
  8. (Northern Wu) now
    從前 [Shanghainese, trad.]
    从前 [Shanghainese, simp.]
    From: 2007, Qian Nairong, 上海话大词典, page 14
    6zon-zhi 6yi 6veq8-koe 5thiau-gu-chi 6ne 6yi 6veq8-pho 8leq [Wugniu]
    A long time ago he was scared to jump over, but now he isn't.
  This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!

Synonyms

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Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Taishanese, colloquial) Alternative form of (which; where)

Compounds

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. from
  2. possessive particle
  3. whereupon
  4. accordingly
  5. you

Readings

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Alternative reading as in 欸乃, compare Mandarin ǎoǎi, Cantonese oi1 oi2:

See also

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Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun 이에 (ie nae))

  1. Hanja form? of (then).
  2. Hanja form? of (really, indeed).
  3. Hanja form? of (as it turned out, after all).

References

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Old Korean

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Alternative forms

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Verb

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(*nwoy-)

  1. to speak; to say
    • c. 1250, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Golden Light Sutra:
      [言]善男子五種法
      PWUTHYE-n nwoy-si-l SYEN.NAM.CO-ya WO.CYONG.PEP-ur UY[?]-a
      As for the Buddha, his [honored] sayings: "O good men! Rely on the Five Laws, and..."
      (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms. Bracketed terms were ignored when read.)

Descendants

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  • Korean: 뇌다 (noeda, to say repeatedly)
  • Korean: 되뇌다 (doenoeda, to repeat the same thing)
  • Korean: 뇌까리다 (noekkarida, to say whatever comes to mind)

Further reading

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  • 남풍현 (Nam Pung-hyeon) (2018) “ko:<願往生歌>의 새로운 解讀 [A new reading of the Wonwangsaeng-ga]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 41, pages 5-27
  • 황선엽 (Hwang Seon-yeop) (2009) 釋讀口訣辭典 [Dictionary of interpretive gugyeol], Taehaksa, →ISBN
  • 이병기 (Yi Byeong-gi) (2014) “구결자료의 어휘 [gugyeoljaryoui eohwi, Vocabulary in the gugyeol sources]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 33, pages 23–61

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: nãi[1][2][3][4][5][6], ái[2]
: Nôm readings: náy[4][6], nãy[4], nảy[4][6][6], nải[1][7][6], nấy[4][6][6], nới[4][6]

  1. chữ Hán form of nãi (but; then).
  2. chữ Hán form of nãi (you).

References

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