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U+4E43, 乃
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E43

[U+4E42]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E44]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order (Mainland China)
 
Stroke order
Traditional Chinese and Japanese
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 4, 丿+1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹尸 (NHS), four-corner 17227, composition𠄎丿)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 81, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 165, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 31, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E43

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

𠄕

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
                   





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

From ancient 𠄎.

EtymologyEdit

“you; your”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).
"then; now"
Related to Tibetan (na, postposition following temporal causes) (Coblin, 1986).

PronunciationEdit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • nái - literary;
  • ná/nǎ - vernacular.
Note:
  • nai2 - “you, your”;
  • nai6 - "just", "then", "be".
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nai²¹⁴/
    Harbin /nai²¹³/
    Tianjin /nai¹³/
    Jinan /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /nai⁵³/
    Xi'an /nai⁵³/
    Xining /nɛ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /nɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /lɛ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /nai⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nai⁴²/
    Chengdu /nai⁵³/
    Guiyang /nai⁴²/
    Kunming /næ⁵³/
    Nanjing /lae²¹²/
    Hefei /le̞²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /nai⁵³/
    Pingyao /næ⁵³/
    Hohhot /nɛ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /na²³/
    Suzhou /ne̞⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /ne̞⁵³/
    Wenzhou /na³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /na³⁵/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /lai⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /nai⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /lai²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /nai⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /nɑi²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nai²³/
    Nanning /nai²⁴/
    Hong Kong /nai²³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /nai⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nai³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nai²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nãi⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nai²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (41)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nʌiX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nəiX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɒiX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nəjX/
    Li
    Rong
    /nᴀiX/
    Wang
    Li
    /nɒiX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nɑ̆iX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nǎi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nǎi nǎi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nojX › ‹ nojX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nˁə(ŋ)ʔ/ /*nˁəʔ/
    English your then

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9337
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nɯːʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (literary) you, your
    2. (literary) be
      失敗成功之母 / 失败成功之母  ―  shībài nǎi chénggōng zhī mǔ  ―  failure is the mother of success
    3. (literary) then; hence
      Synonym: 於是于是 (yúshì)
    4. (literary) only then; not ... until
      Synonym: (cái)
    5. (literary) but
    6. (literary) surprisingly; unexpectedly
      Synonym: 竟然 (jìngrán)
    7. (Mainland China, Internet slang, cute-sounding) you (singular)
        ―  nǎiméng  ―  (cute-sounding variant of 你們) you (plural)
    8. (Shanghai) now
      This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. from
    2. possessive particle
    3. whereupon
    4. accordingly

    ReadingsEdit

    Alternative reading as in 欸乃, compare Mandarin ǎoǎi, Cantonese oi1 oi2:

    See alsoEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 이에 (ie nae))

    1. then
    2. really, indeed
    3. as it turned out, after all
    4. namely

    ReferencesEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: nải, nãi, náy, nảy, nấy, nãy, nới, hồng

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit