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U+4E43, 乃
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E43

[U+4E42]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E44]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order (Mainland China)
 
Stroke order
Traditional Chinese and Japanese
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 4, 丿+1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹尸 (NHS), four-corner 17227, composition𠄎丿)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 81, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 165, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 31, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E43

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

𠄕

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
                   





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nɯːʔ
*nɯːʔ, *nɯːs
*njɯːʔ
*rneːlʔ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ
*njɯŋ, *njɯŋs
*njɯŋs

From ancient 𠄎.

EtymologyEdit

“you; your”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).

PronunciationEdit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • nái - literary;
  • ná/nǎ - vernacular.
Note:
  • nai2 - “you, your”;
  • nai6 - "just", "then", "be".
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nai²¹⁴/
    Harbin /nai²¹³/
    Tianjin /nai¹³/
    Jinan /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /nɛ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /nai⁵³/
    Xi'an /nai⁵³/
    Xining /nɛ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /nɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /lɛ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /nai⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nai⁴²/
    Chengdu /nai⁵³/
    Guiyang /nai⁴²/
    Kunming /næ⁵³/
    Nanjing /lae²¹²/
    Hefei /le̞²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /nai⁵³/
    Pingyao /næ⁵³/
    Hohhot /nɛ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /na²³/
    Suzhou /ne̞⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /ne̞⁵³/
    Wenzhou /na³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /na³⁵/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /lai⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /nai⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /lai²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /nai⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /nɑi²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nai²³/
    Nanning /nai²⁴/
    Hong Kong /nai²³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /nai⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nai³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nai²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nãi⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nai²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (41)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nʌiX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nəiX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɒiX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nəjX/
    Li
    Rong
    /nᴀiX/
    Wang
    Li
    /nɒiX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nɑ̆iX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nǎi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nǎi nǎi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nojX › ‹ nojX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nˁə(ŋ)ʔ/ /*nˁəʔ/
    English your then

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9337
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nɯːʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (literary) be
      失敗成功之母 / 失败成功之母  ―  shībài nǎi chénggōng zhī mǔ  ―  failure is the mother of success
    2. (literary) then
    3. (literary) just
    4. (literary) you, your
      [Classical Chinese, trad. and simp.]
      From: The Book of Documents, circa 4th – 3rd century BCE
      Zhèn xīn zhèn dé, wéi nǎi zhī. [Pinyin]
      Only you know my heart and my virtue.
      中原 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      中原 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
      From: 陸游, 《示兒》
      Wáng shī běi dìng zhōngyuán rì, jiā jì wú wàng gào nǎi wēng. [Pinyin]
      On the day the Song army reconquers the Central Plain in the North, do not forget to inform your father when worshipping your ancestors.
    5. (Mainland China, Internet slang, cute-sounding) you (singular)
        ―  nǎiméng  ―  (cute-sounding variant of 你們) you (plural)
    6. (Shanghai) now
      This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“you (singular)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , , , , , , , honorific,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing , honorific
    Taiwan , honorific
    Harbin , honorific
    Shenyang
    Hailar
    Ulanhot
    Tongliao
    Chifeng , honorific
    Bayanhot , honorific
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Wanrong
    Xi'an
    Zhengzhou
    Xining ,
    Xuzhou ,
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan , 你家 honorific
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou
    Kunming
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Nantong
    Malaysia
    Singapore
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
    Macau
    Panyu
    Huadu (Huashan)
    Conghua
    Zengcheng
    Foshan
    Nanhai (Shatou)
    Shunde
    Sanshui
    Gaoming (Mingcheng)
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Zhuhai (Qianshan)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Doumen
    Jiangmen (Baisha)
    Xinhui
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Enping (Niujiang)
    Heshan (Yayao)
    Dongguan
    Bao'an (Shajing)
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang ,
    Hakka Meixian
    Xingning
    Huidong (Daling)
    Qujiang
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang)
    Changting
    Pingyu
    Wuping
    Liancheng
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Ruijin
    Shicheng
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi , 爾仂
    Shexian
    Tunxi , 爾仂
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou , 你吶 honorific
    Baochang , honorific
    Jining , honorific
    Hohhot , honorific
    Baotou , honorific
    Dongsheng , honorific
    Linhe , honorific
    Haibowan , honorific
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Pingtan
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wuxi
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Tangxi , 爾儂
    Ningbo , , 爾儂
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Xiangtan
    Loudi
    Dialectal synonyms of 現在 (“now”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 當今, 此時, 方今, 今朝, 如今, 而今, ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 現在, 現今, 當今, 此時, 此刻, 如今, 而今,
    Mandarin Beijing 現在, 現而今
    Taiwan 現在
    Harbin 現在, 現如今, 現下, 現前兒
    Shenyang 現在
    Hailar 現在
    Ulanhot 現在
    Tongliao 現在
    Chifeng 現在
    Bayanhot 現在
    Jinan 現在, 如今, 現如今
    Muping 這時晚兒, 現時晚兒
    Luoyang 現在, 而今, 現如今
    Wanrong 人根, 移根
    Xi'an 致兒, 現在
    Xuzhou 眼今, 眼是, 腳底下, 現如今, 現而今 dated, 至而今 dated
    Yinchuan 現在
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi 眼下, 現在
    Wuhan 如今, 此如今
    Chengdu 這陣子, 這陣, 這下兒, 這個時候, 現在
    Guiyang 這下, 這崗, , 這歇, 這個時候
    Liuzhou 一寁
    Kunming 現在
    Yangzhou 現在
    Nanjing 現在
    Hefei 而今, 如今
    Cantonese Guangzhou 而家, 家下, 家陣
    Hong Kong 而家, 家下, 家陣
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 那下
    Taishan 該時
    Dongguan 家下, 那下
    Yangjiang 果陣
    Xinyi 個陣
    Nanning 而家, 而卡
    Wuzhou 家陣, 而家
    Kuala Lumpur 而家
    Gan Nanchang 現在, 如今
    Lichuan 該行崽
    Pingxiang 該仔, 如今
    Hakka Meixian 今下, 今仔下
    Xingning 如下
    Huidong (Daling) 今下
    Qujiang 如今
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 如今
    Changting 如今
    Pingyu
    Wuping 今下
    Liancheng 已久
    Ninghua 今子
    Yudu 如今
    Ruijin 如今, 今下子
    Shicheng 今底
    Shangyou 如今
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 這下, 現下, 今下, 今時, 今這下
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 這下, 現下, 今嘎, 今這下
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 這下, 現下, 今這下
    Dongshi (Dabu) 這下, 現下, 今這下, 這滿
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 這下, 現下, 今這下, 今下, 今時
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 這下, 現時, 今這下, 這滿
    Hong Kong 今下
    Sabah 今下, 今下子, 今下仔
    Senai 今下
    Huizhou Jixi 爾歇
    Shexian 爾扎兒
    Jin Taiyuan 如今, 而今
    Xinzhou 現時
    Baochang 現在
    Jining 這會兒
    Hohhot 這會兒
    Baotou 這會兒
    Dongsheng 這會兒
    Linhe 這咱會兒
    Haibowan 如今
    Min Bei Jian'ou 迦今, 今迦, 現刻
    Dikou
    Zhenqian
    Wuyishan 今下
    Shibei , 今下
    Min Dong Fuzhou 現時, 現刻, 現在, 現今,
    Fuqing 現時
    Ningde 現在,
    Fuding 足古
    Min Nan Xiamen 這陣, 這滿, 這輒仔, 這輒, 這站仔, 這站, 這幫, 現主時, 現時,
    Quanzhou 這陣, 這站仔, 這站, 這幫, 現主時, 現時, 現當今, ,
    Zhangzhou 這陣, 這輒仔, 這輒, 這站仔, 這站, 這幫, 現主時, 現時, 現主在, 現在, 現曾,
    Taipei 這馬, 這站 mT, 現主時 mT
    Kaohsiung , 這時, 這陣, 這馬
    Tainan , 這時, 這陣, 這馬
    Taichung 這馬, 這陣
    Wuqi 這馬
    Hsinchu 這陣, 這馬
    Taitung 這馬
    Lukang 這陣, 這馬, 這路尾
    Sanxia 這馬
    Yilan , 這陣, 這馬
    Kinmen 這陣
    Magong 這陣, , 這馬
    Penang 今仔, 當今
    Singapore 這時, 這陣, 當今
    Philippines (Manila) 這陣
    Chaozhou 此在, 現在, 現時
    Johor Bahru 現在
    Wenchang 現旦
    Haikou 現旦
    Leizhou 現旦
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning 而今
    Wu Shanghai 現在,
    Suzhou 現在, 姑歇, 哀歇, 該歇
    Hangzhou 記歇
    Wenzhou 恁界, 恁仰界
    Chongming 那末
    Danyang 格歇候, 格娘收, 現在
    Jinhua 格孑
    Xiang Changsha 如今, 如至今, 如嶄, 現在
    Shuangfeng 侯基
    Xiangtan 咯如在
    Loudi 而界, 如今
    Note mT - mainstream Taiwanese (no particular region identified)

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. from
    2. possessive particle
    3. whereupon
    4. accordingly

    ReadingsEdit

    Alternative reading as in 欸乃, compare Mandarin ǎoǎi, Cantonese oi1 oi2:

    See alsoEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 이에 (ie nae))

    1. then
    2. really, indeed
    3. as it turned out, after all
    4. namely

    ReferencesEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (nải, nãi, náy, nảy, nấy, nãy, nới, hồng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit