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U+7236, 父
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7236

[U+7235]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7237]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 88, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金大 (CK), four-corner 80400, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #88, .

Derived charactersEdit

Further readingEdit


ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𠇑

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*paː, *paːs
*paːs
*paːs
*pʰaːs
*paʔ
*paʔ, *baʔ
*paʔ, *baʔ
*baʔ
*baʔ

Pictogram (象形) – A hand holding a stone, referring to a man working with a stone axe.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *p/ba (male; father).

Regular development from Middle Chinese would lead to the labiodental in Mandarin, but the colloquial word resisted the sound changes and is now written as (), with the () phonetic component added to it to indicate the unchanged bilabial initial.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • hu6 - literary;
  • bê6 - semantic (original character is ).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bɨoX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bioX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /bioX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /buə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /bioX/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjuX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[N-p](r)aʔ/
    English father

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3504
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*baʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. father
      /   ―  qīn  ―  (formal) father
        ―    ―  parents; father and mother
        ―    ―  father and son
        ―    ―  father and daughter
      /   ―  bèi  ―  one's father's generation
        ―  jiā  ―  (humble) my father
        ―  shēng  ―  biological father
      /   ―  yǎng  ―  adoptive father
      /   ―    ―  stepfather
        ―  tiān  ―  (Christianity) Heavenly Father
      /   ―  guó  ―  father of a nation; (specifically) Father of the Republic (Sun Yat-sen)
      雜交水稻 / 杂交水稻  ―  zájiāo shuǐdào zhī   ―  (specifically) Father of Hybrid Rice (Yuan Longping)
    2. Used to address a male elder member of a family.
        ―    ―  parental grandfather (one's father's father)
        ―    ―  paternal uncle (father's elder brother)
        ―  shū  ―  paternal uncle (father's younger brother)
        ―  yuè  ―  father-in-law (wife's father)
        ―  jiù  ―  maternal uncle (mother's brother)
        ―    ―  maternal uncle (husband of mother's sister)
        ―    ―  paternal uncle (husband of father's sister)
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of 爸爸 (“dad (face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 父親
    Mandarin Beijing 爸爸, ,
    Taiwan 爸爸,
    Harbin 爸爸, ,
    Shenyang 爸爸
    Jinan 爸爸, , Hui, 大大 Hui
    Muping , 爸爸
    Luoyang , 爸爸
    Wanrong ,
    Xi'an , Hui
    Zhengzhou , Hui or suburbs
    Xining 阿達, 達達,
    Xuzhou 答答, 爸爸
    Yinchuan , 爸爸
    Lanzhou , 爸爸
    Ürümqi 爸爸, , 爹爹, , 阿達 Hui
    Wuhan 爸爸, dated, 伯伯 dated
    Huanggang
    Chengdu 爸爸,
    Guiyang 爸爸, dated
    Liuzhou , 阿爸,
    Kunming 爸爸
    Yangzhou 爸爸, 爹爹
    Nanjing , 爸爸, 伯伯
    Hefei 伯伯
    Nantong , 父啊,
    Malaysia 爸爸, , 爹哋
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 達達, , 阿達
    Cantonese Guangzhou 阿爸, 爸爸, 爹哋
    Hong Kong 阿爸, 爸爸, , 爹哋
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
    Macau 阿爸, 爹哋
    Panyu 阿爸, 爸爸
    Huadu (Huashan) 爸爸, 阿叔 dated
    Conghua 阿叔, 阿伯
    Zengcheng 阿爸, 爸爸, 阿哥, 阿叔, 奶公, 阿爺
    Foshan 阿爸
    Nanhai (Shatou) 阿叔
    Shunde 阿爹
    Sanshui 阿爸, 阿爹
    Gaoming (Mingcheng) 阿爸
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 阿爸
    Zhuhai (Qianshan) 阿爸
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 阿爸
    Doumen 阿爸
    Jiangmen (Baisha) 阿爸, 阿爹
    Xinhui 阿爸
    Taishan 阿爸, 阿爹, 阿爺
    Kaiping (Chikan) 阿爹
    Enping (Niujiang) 阿爹
    Heshan (Yayao) 阿爸
    Dongguan 阿爸, 阿叔, 老豆, 爸爸 childish, 爹哋 childish, 爸B childish, 阿大 rare
    Bao'an (Shajing) 阿爸, 爸爸
    Yangjiang 阿爸
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur 老豆, 阿爸, 爹哋
    Gan Nanchang 爸爸,
    Lichuan , 伯伯
    Pingxiang 爺爺, 爹爹, 爸爸
    Hakka Meixian 阿爸
    Xingning 阿爸
    Huizhou (Huicheng Bendihua) 阿爸, 爸爸
    Huidong (Daling) 阿爸
    Dongguan (Qingxi) 阿爸, 爸爸
    Shenzhen (Shatoujiao) 阿爸, 爸爸
    Zhongshan (Nanlang Heshui) 阿爸
    Qujiang 阿爸
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 阿爸
    Conghua (Lütian) 阿爸
    Changting 爹爹, 哥哥
    Pingyu
    Wuping 阿哥,
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 哥哥
    Yudu 爸爸
    Ruijin 爹爹, 爹子
    Shicheng , 爸爸
    Shangyou 爸爸
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿爸
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿爸
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿爸
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿爸
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 阿爸
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿怙
    Hong Kong 阿爸
    Sabah (Longchuan) 阿爸
    Senai 阿爸
    Singkawang 阿爸
    Huizhou Jixi 伯伯,
    Shexian , ,
    Tunxi , ,
    Xiuning , 阿爺
    Yixian 爹爹, 爸爸, 官人
    Qimen 爺兒, 伯兒
    Wuyuan 爸爸,
    Jin Taiyuan 爸爸, 大大, ,
    Pingyao
    Min Bei Jian'ou 爸爸, 爺爺 dated
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依爹, 依爸, 依爺 dated
    Matsu 依爹
    Min Nan Xiamen 阿爸, 阿叔 euphemistic
    Quanzhou 阿爸, 阿叔 euphemistic
    Zhangzhou 阿爸, 阿官, 阿叔 euphemistic
    Taipei 爸爸, 阿爸
    Kaohsiung 爸爸, 阿丈, 阿爸, 阿將
    Tainan 多桑, 爸爸, 阿叔, 阿爸, 俺二仔, 俺爹
    Taichung 爸爸
    Hsinchu 阿爹, 爸爸
    Lukang 阿府, 阿爸
    Sanxia 老歲仔, 老的, 阿爸
    Yilan 阿丈, 阿叔, 阿爸
    Kinmen 俺爹, 俺爸
    Magong 阿爸, , 二仔, 爸爸
    Penang 阿爸, , 爸爸
    Philippines (Manila) 爸爸,
    Chaozhou 阿爸, 阿爹
    Haikou 阿爹, 阿兄, 阿官, 阿爸
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) , 數字, 數老, 阿叔 dated
    Wu Shanghai 爸爸, 老爸, 爹爹 dated, 阿伯 dated
    Suzhou 爹爹
    Hangzhou , 阿伯, 爸爸
    Wenzhou 阿爸, 阿伯, 阿大
    Chongming 爹爹, 阿爹 uncommon, , 爺爺
    Danyang 爹爹, , 爸爸
    Jinhua 伯伯, 爹爹, 爸爸
    Tangxi
    Ningbo 阿伯, 爸爸
    Xiang Changsha 爹爹, 爺爺,
    Shuangfeng 爹爹,
    Loudi 爹爹
    Dialectal synonyms of 爸爸 (“father (non-face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 父親
    Mandarin Beijing 爸爸, ,
    Taiwan 爸爸,
    Harbin 爸爸, ,
    Shenyang 爸爸
    Jinan 爸爸, , Hui, 大大 Hui
    Muping , 爸爸
    Luoyang , 爸爸
    Wanrong ,
    Xi'an , Hui
    Xining 阿達, 達達,
    Xuzhou 答答, 爸爸, 老頭兒, 老頭子
    Yinchuan , 爸爸
    Lanzhou , 爸爸, 老子, 老爹
    Ürümqi 爸爸, 先人, 老爹, , 達當子
    Wuhan 爸爸, 老子, 老頭, dated, 伯伯 dated, 點頭磕 dated, 父老二 dated, casual, 八叉 dated, slang
    Chengdu 爸爸, , 老頭兒, 老把子, 老漢兒
    Guiyang 爸爸, 老爹, 老者, 老者者
    Liuzhou 老爹, 爹老, 爺老, 老頭子
    Kunming 爸爸
    Yangzhou 爸爸, 爹爹, 老子
    Nanjing , 爸爸, 伯伯
    Hefei 伯伯
    Nantong
    Cantonese Guangzhou 老豆, 爸爸, 阿爸, 伯爺
    Hong Kong 老豆, 爸爸, 阿爸, 爹哋, 伯爺
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou) 阿爸,
    Macau 老豆
    Panyu 老豆
    Huadu (Huashan) 老豆
    Conghua 老豆
    Zengcheng 老豆
    Foshan 老豆
    Nanhai (Shatou) 老豆
    Shunde 老豆
    Sanshui 老豆, 伯爺 dated
    Gaoming (Mingcheng) 老豆
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 老子
    Zhuhai (Qianshan) 老豆
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 老豆
    Doumen 老豆
    Jiangmen (Baisha) 老豆
    Xinhui 老豆
    Taishan 老豆
    Kaiping (Chikan) 老豆
    Enping (Niujiang) 老豆
    Heshan (Yayao) 老豆
    Dongguan 老豆, 阿爸, 老子, 爸爸 childish, 爹哋 childish, 爸B childish
    Bao'an (Shajing) 老豆
    Yangjiang 阿爹
    Nanning , 老豆, 老嘢
    Gan Nanchang 爸爸, 老子, 爺老子
    Lichuan , 家父
    Pingxiang 爺老子
    Hakka Meixian 阿爸, 爺仔
    Huizhou (Huicheng Bendihua) 老豆
    Dongguan (Qingxi) 阿爸
    Shenzhen (Shatoujiao) 阿爸
    Zhongshan (Nanlang Heshui) 爺子
    Conghua (Lütian) 父親
    Yudu 爺老
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿爸
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿爸
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿爸
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿爸
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 阿爸
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿怙
    Huizhou Jixi 老子
    Jin Taiyuan 老子, 大大, ,
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou 郎爸
    Min Nan Xiamen 老爸, 娘爸 dated
    Quanzhou 老爸
    Zhangzhou 老爸, 娘爸 dated
    Taipei 老爸
    Kaohsiung 老爸
    Tainan 老爸, 俺爸
    Taichung 老爸, 爸爸
    Hsinchu 老爸, 阿爹, 爸爸
    Lukang 老爸
    Sanxia 老爸, 阿爸
    Yilan 老爸
    Kinmen 俺爹
    Magong 老爸
    Penang 老爸, 阿爸, , 爸爸, , 老的
    Philippines (Manila) 老爸
    Chaozhou 阿父
    Haikou
    Leizhou 尼阿
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) , 老子, 數字, 數老, 阿叔 dated
    Wu Shanghai 爸爸, 老爸, 爹爹 dated, 阿伯 dated
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou , 阿伯, 爸爸, 老子
    Wenzhou 阿爸, 阿伯
    Chongming , 爺爺
    Danyang 爹爹, , 爸爸
    Jinhua
    Ningbo , 阿爹, 阿伯, 爸爸, 老頭子
    Xiang Changsha 爺老倌, 爺老子, 爹爹, 爺爺,
    Shuangfeng 爹爹
    Loudi 爹爹, 爺老倌, 爺老子, , 老人家

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pɨoX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pioX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /pioX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /puə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /pioX/
    Wang
    Li
    /pĭuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pi̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pjuX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*p(r)aʔ/
    English (respectful suffix in male names)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 3500
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*paʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (literary, respectful) old man; elderly man
      /   ―    ―  old fisherman
        ―  tián  ―  old farmer
    2. (literary) Alternative form of (, “honorific suffix used after a man's name; courtesy name”).
      梁甫山  ―  Liángshān (Liángfǔshān)  ―  Mount Liangfu (alternately, Mount Liangfu) (in Shandong, China)
    3. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ちち
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese (titi).

    Still in modern usage.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ちち, rōmaji chichi)

    1. one's own father (male parent)
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 115:[3]
        父 爲考、和名知々、日本紀私記云加曾
        Father: considered in Japanese as chichi; in the Nihon Shoki Shiki it is pronounced kaso
    2. (by extension, figuratively) a father figure (male initiator or founder of something)
       (きん) (だい) () (がく) (ちち)
      kindai igaku no chichi
      the father of modern medicine
    3. (Christianity) God, the Holy Father
    Usage notesEdit

    When describing a family member, only used to reference one's own father; not used as a standalone noun to refer to someone else's father.

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ちち > てて
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Appears in the Utsubo Monogatari of roughly 970 CE.[4]

    Shift from chichi.[4][5]

    Usage continued until at least the early 1700s.[4]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana てて, rōmaji tete)

    1. (archaic) one's own father
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    とと
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Appears in the Nippo Jisho of 1603.[4]

    Originally a shift from chichi or tete in baby talk, used by children to refer to their own father.

    Still in modern usage.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana とと, rōmaji toto)

    1. (childish) one's own father: daddy
      Antonym: (kaka)
    2. (by later extension) a husband, master of the house
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ちゃん
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    /totosan//totːɕan//t͡ɕan/

    Likely a contraction of 父さん (toto-san).

    Alternative formsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ちゃん, rōmaji chan)

    1. (informal, possibly dialectal) one's own father [from Edo to early-Meiji period]
    2. (by later extension) the head or master of an establishment such as a teahouse, boathouse, etc.

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    goon

    The “father” and “uncle” affixes is from Middle Chinese (MC bɨoX).

    The “old man” affix is from Middle Chinese (MC pɨoX).

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji fu)

    1. father
    2. father figure
    3. uncle
    4. old man, elderly man
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kan’yōon

    From a corruption of Middle Chinese (MC pɨoX).

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ho)

    1. (honorific) old man
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 7Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かそ
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    ⟨kaso2 → */kasə//kaso//kazo/

    From Old Japanese. Appears in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE as unvoiced kaso.[1][4] Further derivation unknown.[4]

    May have fallen out of use by 1603, when neither kaso nor kazo are found in the Nippo Jisho. Kaso would be here as the sixth entry from the bottom on the left, and kazo would be here as the eighth from the bottom on the right.

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Irregular reading)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かぞ, rōmaji kazo)

    1. (obsolete) one's own father
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 115:[3]
        父 爲考、和名知々、日本紀私記云加曾
        Father: considered in Japanese as chichi; in the Nihon Shoki Shiki it is pronounced kaso
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 Minamoto, Shitagō; Kyōto Daigaku Bungakubu Kokugogaku Kokubungaku Kenkyūshitu (931–938) Shohon Shūsei Wamyō Ruijushō: Honbunhen (in Japanese), Kyōto: Rinsen, published 1968, →ISBN.
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    5. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    6. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC bɨoX, “father”). Recorded as Middle Korean 부〮 (Yale: pwu) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 아비 (abi bu))

    1. Hanja form? of (father).
    2. Hanja form? of (elderly male relative).
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC pɨoX, “old man; elderly man”).

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 사내 (sanae bo))

    1. (literary) Hanja form? of (respectful term for an elderly man).
      Synonym: ( (bo))
    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Old JapaneseEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Reduplication of ti below.[1]

    NounEdit

    (titi) (kana ちち)

    1. one's own father
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 13, poem 3312), text here
        ...奥床仁母者睡有外床丹者寐有...
        ...okuto2ko2 ni papa pa inetari to1do2ko2 ni titi pa inetari...
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      Antonym: (omo, papa)
    Derived termsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (chichi, tete, toto)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Eastern dialect of titi above.

    NounEdit

    (sisi) (kana しし)

    1. (regional, Northern Eastern Old Japanese) one's own father
      Antonym: (amo)
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    From Proto-Japonic *ti.

    NounEdit

    (ti) (kana )

    1. (honorific) a term of respect for males
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 48)
        加志能布邇余久須袁都久理余久須邇迦美斯意富美岐宇麻良爾岐許志母知袁勢麻呂賀
        kasi no2 pu ni yo2kusu wo tukuri yo2kusu ni kami1si opomi1ki1 umara ni ki1ko2simo2tiwose maro2 ga ti
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
        Note: Poem 39 of the Nihon Shoki is similar to this but replaces 迦美斯 (kami1si) with 伽綿蘆 (kame1ru).
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Unknown.[2]

    NounEdit

    (kaso2) (kana かそ)

    1. one's own father
      • 720, Nihon Shoki (Emperor Ninken, entry 11: sixth year, ninth month in autumn)
        菱城邑人鹿父〈鹿父、人名也。俗、呼父為柯曾〉聞而向前曰「何哭之哀甚、若此乎」。
        A man of Pisikï village, Kakasö (his name is Kakasö; it was customary to call one's father kasö) heard [the woman's] cries, turned to her, and asked, “Why these cries of grief, young one?”
      Antonym: (iro2pa)
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (kazo)

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    VietnameseEdit