Open main menu
See also:
U+5FA1, 御
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5FA1

[U+5FA0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5FA2]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 60, +8 in traditional Chinese and Korean, 彳+9 in mainland China and Japanese, 11 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 12 strokes in mainland China and Japanese, cangjie input 竹人人一中 (HOOML), four-corner 27220, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 368, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10157
  • Dae Jaweon: page 693, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 832, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+5FA1

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sŋjaːs
*hŋaːŋʔ
*hŋaːʔ
*ŋaːʔ
*ŋaːʔ
*ŋaːʔ
*ŋaːs
*ŋaːs
*ŋ̊ʰjaʔ
*ŋaʔ
*ŋaʔ
*ŋaʔ
*ŋaʔ, *ŋas
*hŋaʔ
*ŋas

Ideogrammic compound (會意): semantic  + semantic .

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.

Sino-Tibetan. Schuessler (2007) compared to Burmese [script needed] (môŋ, drive away, threaten) and [script needed] (ə-môŋ, driving).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ghe6 - "to ride" or "to defend against";
  • ghe7 - "imperial".

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨʌH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋiɔH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiɔH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɨə̆H/
Li
Rong
/ŋiɔH/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭoH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi̯woH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjoX › ‹ ngjoH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-[qʰ](r)aʔ/ /*[ŋ](r)a-s/
English ward off; withstand drive a chariot (loan)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13181
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋas/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (prefix) imperial
  2. to manage, to govern (of the sovereign, by extension, to be present in)
  3. to ride (on an animal or a vehicle drawn by animals)
  4. Alternative form of (“to defend against”).
    [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Classic of Poetry, circa 11th – 7th centuries BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    Wǒ yǒu zhǐ xù, yì yǐ dōng. Yàn ěr xīn hūn, yǐ wǒ qióng. [Pinyin]
    My fine collection of vegetables, is but a provision against the winter. Feasting with your new wife, you think of me as a provision [only] against your poverty.

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to defend”).
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

As variant kanji of :

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

/oɴ//o/

Shift from on- below.[1][2]

Already apparent since the 14th century.

PrefixEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji o-)

  1. indicates that the [word] is honorific; often used to indicate that the [word] belongs or is related to the listener (as opposed to the speaker)
Derived termsEdit
Usage notesEdit

Not to be confused with (ō-, great), which is a less-commonly used prefix.

Almost exclusively written in hiragana, to disambiguate with the heteronyms below.

Prefixed to the native Japanese words, as in 御水 (o-mizu, water) (words read with 訓読み (kun'yomi)). However, there are numerous exceptions such as お弁当 (o-bentō) and お電話 (o-denwa). In old use, prefixed short women's names regardless of the type of reading, for example お菊 (o-Kiku), おしん (o-Shin), お仙 (o-Sen), お妙 (o-Tae), etc. For 外来語 (gairaigo, (non-Chinese) foreign loan words), this prefix is seldom used, but somewhat preferred in the jargon of some kinds of industry, as in おビール (o-bīru, beer).

Usage varies between speakers, situations, and gender – more polite speech, especially by women, features more use of this prefix, while blunt speech, especially by men, uses it less or not at all (words where the prefix has become mandatory are replaced by blunter terms that do not have the prefix). In rare cases a prefixed term has become impolite, as in 御前 (omae, you (familiar or derogatory)).

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
おん
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/oɸomʉ//owomʉ//oːɴ//oɴ/

Early-Late Middle Japanese shift from ōn- below.[1]

PrefixEdit

(hiragana おん, rōmaji on-)

  1. indicates that the [word] is honorific; often used to indicate that the [word] belongs or is related to the listener (as opposed to the speaker)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
おおん
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Kanji in this term
おおむ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

⟨opomi1*/opomʲɨ/*/əpəmʲɨ//oɸomʉ//owoɴ//oːɴ/

First attested in the Wamyō Ruijushō (938 CE), as man'yōgana form 於保无 (opomu- → ōmu-) within 於保无太加良 (opomutakara → ōmutakara, people, as a kun reading of 人民).

Shift from Old Japanese 大御 (⟨opomi1 → ōmi-, prefix of maximum honorific).

Both ōmu- and ōn- readings likely existed in free variation until the development of the (n) grapheme.

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana おおん, rōmaji ōn-, historical hiragana おほん)
(alternative reading hiragana おおむ, rōmaji ōmu-, historical hiragana おほむ)

  1. (obsolete) indicates that the [word] is honorific; often used to indicate that the [word] belongs or is related to the listener (as opposed to the speaker)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

⟨mi1 → */mʲi//mi/

From Old Japanese.

Cognate with , (mi, spirit, god), as this prefix was originally used to refer to gods and other spiritually important things.

Alternative formsEdit

  • (honorific emphasizing beauty): ,

PrefixEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji mi-)

  1. (honorific, archaic) added to gods and other spiritually important things
  2. (honorific, archaic) added to nouns to indicate godlike respect
  3. (honorific, archaic) added to placenames to emphasize beauty
Derived termsEdit

Usage notesEdit

Primarily for the religious words, pertaining to gods or the emperor, as in 御輿 (mikoshi, portable shrine). However, in this context it is often replaced by ("god", also pronounced mi-), and then a further (​o-) may be added, as in 御神輿 (o-mikoshi). The mi- prefix also became merged into other kanji, as in (miya, imperial palace).

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɨʌH).

The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

PrefixEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji go-)

  1. indicates that the [word] is honorific; often used to indicate that the [word] belongs or is related to the listener (as opposed to the speaker)
Derived termsEdit
Usage notesEdit

Prefixed to the Sino-Japanese words, as in 御主人 (goshujin, husband).

While in general this prefix is optional, in many cases it is so commonly used that the base word can no longer be used in isolation, as in 御飯 (gohan, rice) – the form × (*han) is not used alone, though it can be used as parts of compounds (such as 炊飯, suihan, “rice cooking”), and the character can be read in isolation as meshi.

It may also be used with modern foreign borrowings.

本日 (ほんじつ)ニコニコ動画 (どうが) ()アクセス (いただ)き、ありがとうございます
Honjitsu wa Nikoniko Dōga ni go-akusesu-itadaki, arigatō gozaimasu.
Thank you for accessing Niconico today.

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
goon

Short form of 御前 (gozen, noble person).

SuffixEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji -go)

  1. (honorific) indicates that the [word] is familiar to the speaker and slight honorific
Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji go)

  1. (obsolete, archaic, honorific) a lady
    suffixed to the given name, via genitive particle (no):
    伊勢 (いせ) ()Ise no GoLady Ise
  2. (obsolete, archaic, honorific) form of address to a woman or a court lady: my Lady
    used in the plural form 御達 (gotachi)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 7Edit

Kanji in this term
ぎょ
Grade: S
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɨʌH).

The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Alternative formsEdit

  • (horseriding, coachman):

NounEdit

(hiragana ぎょ, rōmaji gyo)

  1. equestrianism, horseriding
  2. a coachman
  3. (by extension) serving nearby (to an aristocrat, etc.)
Derived termsEdit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana ぎょ, rōmaji gyo-)

  1. prefixed to make a honorific kanji compound, especially used to indicate that the [word] belongs or is related to the emperor and/or the equivalents
Derived termsEdit

SuffixEdit

(hiragana ぎょ, rōmaji -gyo)

  1. suffixed to make a honorific kanji compound which means the action belongs or is related to the emperor and/or the equivalents
Derived termsEdit

AffixEdit

(hiragana ぎょ, rōmaji gyo)

  1. control (a machine, etc.)
  2. govern, rule
  3. servant
  4. Alternative spelling of (gyo): defend, protect

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eo, a) (hangeul , , revised eo, a, McCune–Reischauer ŏ, a, Yale e, a)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Old JapaneseEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with , (mi1, spirit, god), as this prefix was originally used to refer to gods and other spiritually important things.

PrefixEdit

(mi1-) (kana )

  1. (honorific) added to gods and other spiritually important things
  2. (honorific) added to nouns to indicate godlike respect
  3. (honorific) added to placenames to emphasize beauty

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Japanese: , , (mi-)

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ngự, ngợ, ngừ, ngừa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.