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U+9593, 間
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9593

[U+9592]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9594]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 169, +4, 12 strokes, cangjie input 日弓日 (ANA), four-corner 77607, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1333, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41249
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1839, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4288, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9593

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kreːn, *kreːns
*kreːnʔ
*kreːns, *kraːns
*kreːns, *kraːns
*kreːn
*kreːn, *kreːns, *pkrenʔ
*kreːnʔ, *kreːns
*kreːnʔ, *ɡraːnʔ
*kʰreːn, *kʰraːn, *kʰreːd
*ɡreːn
*ɡreːn
*ɡreːn, *ɡraːnʔ
*ɡraːnʔ
*ɡraːnʔ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (door) +  (sun). Originally , moonlight peeking through a door – interstice; space.

EtymologyEdit

The two pronunciations are related, with Pronunciation 2 being the exoactive of Pronunciation 1.

Related to:

Externally, likely related to Mizo kâr (space between; interval), Burmese ကြား (kra:, in-between; interval; interim), အကြား (a.kra:, gap; break) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • Xiamen, Quanzhou, Taiwan:
    • keng/kuiⁿ/kaiⁿ - vernacular (“room, classifier”);
    • kan - literary.
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: goin1 / gain1 / gang1
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: koiⁿ / kaiⁿ / kang
    • Sinological IPA (key): /kõĩ³³/, /kãĩ³³/, /kaŋ³³/
  • Note:
    • goin1/gain1 - vernacular (“room, classifier”) (gain1 - Jieyang, Chaoyang);
    • gang1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 1ke - vernacular;
    • 1ji - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (73)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠɛn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚæn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kəɨn/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /kæn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kăn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jiān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jiān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kɛn ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁre[n]/
    English interval

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 6226
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kreːn/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. within a definite time period or place
    2. among; between
    3. a moment; a little while; instant
    4. room; chamber
    5. section of a room; lateral space between two pairs of pillars
    6. Classifier for smallest units of housing, such as rooms and shopfronts.
    7. (chiefly Cantonese) Classifier for buildings in general, including schools, banks, cinemas, hospitals, shops, factories.
    8. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note: gain3 - Jieyang, Chaoyang.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (73)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠɛnH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚænH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kænH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kəɨnH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɛnH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kænH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kănH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jiàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jiān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kɛn ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁre[n]/
    English 間關 sound of a chariot"s linchpin (Ode 218.1)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 6228
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kreːns/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. opening; gap; break
    2. estrangement; alienation; hostility
    3. spy; secret agent
    4. to keep away from; to keep apart
    5. to separate; to partition
    6. to alternate; to do something alternately
    7. to be mixed up with; to be intermingled
    8. to sow discord
    9. to blame; to reproach
    10. intermittently; sometimes
    11. in secret; clandestinely

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Variant pronunciation of the classifier sense.
    2. Used in place names.

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

     
    Ryakuji for 間, based on ryakuji for ; compare also .

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • New Nelson: 6391
    • Halpern: 3323
    • Halpern Learners: 2094
    • Heisig: 1620
    • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 8e4.3
    1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あいだ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry at あいだ.
    あいだ【間】
    [noun]a space
    [noun]a while; an interval; (when followed by ) meanwhile
    [noun]between
    [noun]during
    (This term, , is a kanji spelling of あいだ.)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry at .
    ま【間】
    [noun]space; room
    (This term, , is a kanji spelling of .)

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あい
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry at あい.
    あい【間】
    [noun](literary or dialectal) interval of time or space; time; during; between; leisure
    [noun]relation; relationship; terms (between people)
    [noun]Short for 間狂言 (aikyōgen).
    [noun]Short for 間駒 (aigoma).
    [noun]Short for 間の手 (ai no te).
    (This term, , is a kanji spelling of あい.)

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (kɛn, interval).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かん, rōmaji kan)

    1. interval

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana かん, rōmaji -kan)

    1. suffixes some expressions of time to tell duration rather than time or date
       () ()
      ni-ji
      two (o'clock)
       () () (かん)
      ni-jikan
      two hours
       () () () (ふん)
      ni-ji go-fun
      five past two
       () (ふん)( (かん))
      go-fun(kan)
      five minutes
       (ふつ) ()
      futsuka
      the 2nd (day of the month)
       (ふつ) ()( (かん))
      futsuka(kan)
      two days

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 사이 (sai gan))

    1. Hanja form? of (between).

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: gian, dán, gián

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit