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See also:
U+5978, 奸
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5978

[U+5977]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5979]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 38 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 女一十 (VMJ), four-corner 41440, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 255, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6045
  • Dae Jaweon: page 518, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1025, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5978

ChineseEdit

trad. /
simp.
姦: “evil; to commit adultery; to rape”

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
krads, *krads, *ked, *kad
kaːn
竿 kaːn
kaːn
kaːn
kaːn
kaːn, *ɡaːn, *ɡaːns
kaːn
kaːn, *ɡaːns
kaːn
kaːn, *ɡaːn
kaːnʔ
kaːnʔ, *kaːns, *ɡaːns
kaːnʔ
kaːnʔ
kaːnʔ
kaːnʔ
kaːnʔ
kaːns
kaːns
kaːns
kaːns
kaːns, *ɡraːns
kaːnʔ
kaːnʔ
kaːnʔ
kʰaːn
kʰaːn, *kʰaːns, *kreːn, *kan
kʰaːnʔ, *kʰaːns
ŋaːn, *ŋaːns
ŋaːn, *ŋaːns, *ɦŋaːns, *ŋ̥ʰraːn
ŋaːns, *hŋaːn, *ŋaːd
ŋɡaːns
qʰaːn, *ɢaːns
qʰaːnʔ, *qʰaːns
qʰaːnʔ, *ɡaːns
qʰaːnʔ
ɡaːn
ɡaːnʔ
ɡaːnʔ
ɡaːns
ɡaːns
ɡaːns
ɡaːns, *kʰraːn
ɡaːns, *ɡraːnʔ
ɡaːns
ɡaːns
ɡaːns
ɡaːns
ɡʷranʔ
ɡraːns
kan
ɡan, *ɡʷad
qʰan
qʰan
qʰaːŋʔ
ɡʷaːnʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːn): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kaːn).

PronunciationEdit


Note: gān - Mainland, used in the sense “to offend”.
Note:
  • 1ke - vernacular;
  • 1ji - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɑn/
Pan
Wuyun
/kɑn/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kan/
Li
Rong
/kɑn/
Wang
Li
/kɑn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɑn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gān
Middle
Chinese
‹ kan ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˤa[r]/
English treacherous

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3571
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːn/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to offend; to conflict
  2. to stage an armed rebellion or steal
  3. evil; wicked; treacherous
  4. self-seeking; wily
  5. evildoer; treacherous person
  6. traitor; betrayer
  7. to commit adultery

AntonymsEdit

  • (evil): (, “righteous; justice”)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Kanji in this term
かん
Hyōgaiji
on’yomi

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese (kan).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

AdjectiveEdit

(-na inflection, hiragana かん, rōmaji kan)

  1. wicked

InflectionEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かん, rōmaji kan)

  1. wickedness, wicked person

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(gan) (hangeul , revised gan, McCune-Reischauer kan)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.