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ChineseEdit

 
language; culture; writing; formal; literary; gentle
 
clear; bright; to understand; next; the Ming dynasty
simp. and trad.
(文明)
anagram 明文
 
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EtymologyEdit

Wasei kango (和製漢語), orthographically borrowed from Japanese  (ぶん) (めい) (bunmei, civilization), which was in turn a semantic readaptation of Chinese 文明 (wénmíng, “elegance and brightness; being civilised and cultured”).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (4) (4)
Final () (59) (111)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mɨun/ /mˠiæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/miun/ /mᵚiaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/miuən/ /miaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mun/ /miajŋ/
Li
Rong
/miuən/ /miɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/mĭuən/ /mĭɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯uən/ /mi̯ɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wén míng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wén míng
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjun › ‹ mjæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə[n]/ /*mraŋ/
English ornate bright

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 13015 9188
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯn/ /*mraŋ/

NounEdit

文明

  1. civilization (Classifier: m)
    中華文明 / 中华文明  ―  zhōnghuá wénmíng  ―  Chinese civilization
    傳遞文明工具 [MSC, trad.]
    传递文明工具 [MSC, simp.]
    Shū shì chuándì wénmíng de gōngjù. [Pinyin]
    Books are the way in which civilization is transmitted.
    其他生物最大不同就是擁有文明 [MSC, trad.]
    其他生物最大不同就是拥有文明 [MSC, simp.]
    Rén yǔ qítā shēngwù zuìdà de bùtóng, jiùshì yōngyǒu wénmíng. [Pinyin]
    The ability to develop civilizations is the biggest difference between humans and other living things.
  2. civilized behaviour; manners
    加強文明意識 / 加强文明意识  ―  jiāqiáng wénmíng yìshí  ―  to improve people's awareness of civilized behaviour

AdjectiveEdit

文明

  1. civilized
    文明行為 / 文明行为  ―  wénmíng xíngwéi  ―  civilized behaviour
    文明交往  ―  wénmíng jiāowǎng  ―  to socialize in a civilized manner
    舉止文明 / 举止文明  ―  jǔzhǐ wénmíng  ―  to behave in a civilized manner
  2. (dated) modern
  3. (archaic) having literary talent

AntonymsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Derived termsEdit


JapaneseEdit

 文明 on Japanese Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
ぶん
Grade: 1
めい
Grade: 2
kan’on

EtymologyEdit

Learned borrowing from Middle Chinese 文明 (MC mɨun mˠiæŋ).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

文明 (hiragana ぶんめい, rōmaji bunmei)

  1. civilization

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Chinese: : 文明 (wénmíng, “civilization”)
  • Korean: 문명 (munmyeong)
  • Vietnamese: : văn minh

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

文明 (munmyeong) (hangeul 문명)

  1. Hanja form? of 문명 (civilization).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

AdjectiveEdit

文明

  1. Hán tự form of văn minh (civilized).