See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

EtymologyEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  + semantic  ‎(heart)

Han characterEdit

(radical 61 +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 戈人土心 (IOGP) or 戈土心 (IGP), four-corner 00231, composition)

  1. should, ought to, must

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 405, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11330
  • Dae Jaweon: page 746, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2359, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+61C9

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 應 (該) 應 (對)
Mandarin Beijing /iŋ⁵⁵/ /iŋ⁵¹/
Harbin /iŋ⁴⁴/ /iŋ⁵³/
Tianjin /iŋ²¹/ /iŋ⁵³/
Jinan /iŋ²¹³/ /iŋ²¹/
Qingdao /iŋ²¹³/ /iŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /iŋ³¹²/ /iŋ³¹²/
Xi'an /iŋ²¹/ /iŋ⁴⁴/
Xining /iə̃⁴⁴/ /iə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /iŋ⁴⁴/ /iŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /ĩn¹³/ /ĩn¹³/
Ürümqi /iŋ⁴⁴/ /iŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /in³⁵/ /in³⁵/
Chengdu /in⁵⁵/ /in¹³/
Guiyang /in²¹³/ /in²¹³/
Kunming /ĩ¹/ /ĩ²¹²/
Nanjing /in³¹/ /in⁴⁴/
Hefei /in²¹/ /in⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /iəŋ¹¹/ /iəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /iŋ¹³/ /iŋ³⁵/
/i³⁵/ 答~
Hohhot /ĩŋ⁵⁵/ /ĩŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /iŋ⁵³/ /iŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /in⁵⁵/ /in⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /ʔin³³/ /ʔin⁵³⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /j̠aŋ³³/ /j̠aŋ⁴²/
Hui Shexian /iʌ̃³²⁴/ /iʌ̃³²⁴/
Tunxi /iɛ¹¹/ /in⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /in⁵⁵/ /in⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /in⁵⁵/ /in⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /in⁴²/ /in⁴⁵/ ~付
/ŋiɛn⁴⁵/ ~一聲
Hakka Meixian /in⁴⁴/ /in⁵³/
Taoyuan /in⁵⁵/ /in⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jeŋ⁵³/ /jeŋ³³/
Nanning /jeŋ⁵⁵/ /jeŋ³³/
Hong Kong /jiŋ⁵⁵/ /jiŋ³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iŋ⁵⁵/ /iŋ²¹/
/in²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁴⁴/ /ɛiŋ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /eiŋ³³/ /aiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /eŋ³³/ /eŋ²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /eŋ²³/ /eŋ³⁵/
/in³⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (34)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɨŋ/ /ʔi̯əŋ/ /ʔiəŋ/ /ʔɨŋ/ /ʔiŋ/ /ĭəŋ/ /ʔieŋ/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (34)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɨŋH/ /ʔi̯əŋH/ /ʔiəŋH/ /ʔɨŋH/ /ʔiŋH/ /ĭəŋH/ /ʔieŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
yīng ‹ ʔing › /*[q](r)əŋ/ ought

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
15346 0 /*qɯŋ/
15349 0 /*qɯŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

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Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

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ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(eung) (hangeul , revised eung, McCune-Reischauer ŭng, Yale ung)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ứng, ưng, ừng)

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