See also: , , , , and
U+5927, 大
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5927

[U+5926]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5928]
U+2F24, ⼤
KANGXI RADICAL BIG

[U+2F23]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F25]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 37, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 大 (K), four-corner 40030 or 40800, composition or ⿸𠂇)

  1. Kangxi radical #37, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 248, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5831
  • Dae Jaweon: page 492, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 520, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5927

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𠘲
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script
                     

Ideogram (指事): a person with arms stretched out as far as possible, implying the meaning of big/great/large.

Compare with , which is a man with bent legs.

Compare also , which is a man with arms outstretched and a crest or tattoo on his chest, and to , which is a man with arms outstretched and leaning to side (running).

EtymologyEdit

Three pronunciations can be found in Modern Standard Mandarin:

  1. Modern , from Middle Chinese H, from Old Chinese *lˤaːts. The phonological development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese is irregular. Original sense: "big" (Shijing). Derived senses: "size" (Mozi), "thick" (Zhuangzi), "to respect" (Mengzi), "to respect" (Xunzi), "to extol" (Gongyang Zhuan), "to exaggerate" (Classic of Rites), "arrogant" (Guoyu), "good" (I Ching), "(of time) long" (Erya), "senior" (Shijing).
  2. Modern dài, from Middle Chinese dɑiH, from Old Chinese *lˤaːts. This Middle Chinese pronunciation-preserving (i.e. literary) pronunciation occurs only in compounds such as 大夫 (dàifu, “doctor”) and 大王 (dàiwang, “(in operas, old novels) king; ringleader”).
  3. Modern tài, from Middle Chinese tʰɑiH, from Old Chinese *l̥ˤaːts. This is the ancient form of (tài, “too, excessively”) and this orthographical usage is obsolete in modern languages.

Pronunciation 2), the diphthong reading, is traditionally regarded as the correct one. However, the monophthong reading 1) has been recorded as early as Han Dynasty, and Sui-Tang rhyme books record both. Both readings are reflected in Sino-xenic readings in non-Sinitic languages, although the diphthong readings dominate in compounds. Axel Schüssler postulates that all pronunciations can eventually be traced back to liquid initials, i.e. 1,2) **laːts, 3) **hlaːts.

The three pronunciations are cognate. Within Chinese, they are cognate with (OC *tʰaːds, “too, excessively”), (OC *tʰaːds, “big”). Wang (1982) also lists (OC *l'aːnʔ, “big, magniloquent, ridiculous”) as a cognate, which Schuessler (2007) suggests is cognate with (OC *lan, *lans, “to extend”) instead. There are no unambiguous Tibeto-Burman cognates. Proto-Tibeto-Burman *taj (big), from which came Written Tibetan མཐེ་བོ (mthe bo, thumb), Anong tʰɛ (big; large; great), Mikir tʰè, ketʰè ("id."), Burmese တယ် (tai, very), is often compared with. There is no final –s in the Tibeto-Burman words, but a –y, which, according to James Matisoff, "indicates emergent quality in stative verbs". Also compare Chinese (OC *ʔl'aːl, “many, much”), (OC *taː, “all”).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • daai6-2 - “only so big/old”;
  • daai6-1 - “small”.
  • Gan
  • Note: to5 - limited (e.g. 大(姑)娘, 大(姑)爺).
    Note:
    • tōa/tā - vernacular;
    • tāi - literary.
    Note:
    • dua7 - vernacular;
    • dai6 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3du - vernacular;
    • 3da - literary.
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • dai5 - vernacular;
    • da4 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 大 (小)
    Mandarin Beijing /ta⁵¹/
    Harbin /ta⁵³/
    Tianjin /tɑ⁵³/
    Jinan /ta²¹/
    Qingdao /ta²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /ta³¹²/
    Xi'an /ta⁴⁴/
    Xining /ta²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ta¹³/
    Lanzhou /ta¹³/
    Ürümqi /ta²¹³/
    Wuhan /ta³⁵/
    Chengdu /ta¹³/
    Guiyang /ta²¹³/
    Kunming /ta̠²¹²/
    Nanjing /tɑ⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ta⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /ta⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /tei³⁵/
    /tɑ³⁵/
    Hohhot /ta⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /da²³/
    /du²³/
    Suzhou /dəu³¹/
    Hangzhou /dɑ¹³/
    /do¹³/
    Wenzhou /da²²/
    /dɤu²²/
    Hui Shexian /tʰa²²/
    /tʰo²²/
    Tunxi /tʰo¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ta⁵⁵/
    /tai¹¹/
    Xiangtan /dai²¹/
    Gan Nanchang /tʰo²¹/ ~娘,姑母
    Hakka Meixian /tʰai⁵³/
    Taoyuan /tʰɑi⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /tai²²/
    Nanning /tai²²/
    Hong Kong /tai²²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /to²²/
    /tua²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tuɑi²⁴²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tuɛ⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /tai³⁵/
    /tua³¹/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔda³⁵/
    /ʔdua²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (7) (7)
    Final () (25) (94)
    Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /dɑiH/ /dɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /dɑiH/ /dɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /dɑiH/ /dɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /dajH/ /daH/
    Li
    Rong
    /dɑiH/ /dɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /dɑiH/ /dɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /dʱɑiH/ /dʱɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    dài duò
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    daai6 do6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ daH › ‹ dajH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*lˁat-s/ (MC F!) /*lˁa[t]-s/
    English big big

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 1934 1939
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*daːds/ /*daːds/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. of great size; big; large; huge
      /   ―  Zhè ge tài le!  ―  This is too big!
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      ni1 tiu4 fu3 hou2 daai6 tiu4. [Jyutping]
      This pair of pants is very big.
      Synonym: 鸿 (hóng(literary)
      Antonym: (xiǎo)
    2. big; great
      關係改善 [MSC, trad.]
      关系改善 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhōng Měi guānxì yǐ yǒu hěn gǎishàn. [Pinyin]
      Relations between China and America have improved greatly.
      漢語詞典 / 汉语词典  ―  Hànyǔ Cídiǎn  ―  the Great Chinese Dictionary
    3. great of its kind
      昨天  ―  Zuótiān xià yǔ.  ―  There was heavy rain yesterday.
      𠹻 [Cantonese]  ―  hou2 daai6 zam6 mei6 [Jyutping]  ―  a very strong smell
    4. in an extreme manner; greatly
        ―    ―  to cry violently
      吃一驚 / 吃一惊  ―  chīyījīng  ―  to be greatly shocked
      相同  ―  bù xiàngtóng  ―  to be greatly different
      遇到情況可以走人 [MSC, trad.]
      遇到情况可以走人 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ yùdào zhè zhǒng qíngkuàng, kěyǐ zǒurén na. [Pinyin]
      If you come across this kind of situation, you absolutely can leave.
      知道昨兒過來折騰好家伙差點兒沒這兒 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      知道昨儿过来折腾好家伙差点儿没这儿 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Nǐ kě bù zhīdào, tā zuór guòlai zhēteng le yī chǎng. Hǎojiāhuo, chàdiǎnr méi bǎ zhèr chāi lou! [Pinyin]
      You don't even know, yesterday he came over and wildly stirred up trouble. Oh my God, he almost tore this place apart!
    5. main; major
      他們一直門口 [MSC, trad.]
      他们一直门口 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen jiāng chē yīzhí kāi dào ménkǒu. [Pinyin]
      They drove right up to the main gate.
      一家石油公司股東 [MSC, trad.]
      一家石油公司股东 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā shì yījiā shíyóu gōngsī de gǔdōng. [Pinyin]
      He is a major stockholder in an oil company.
    6. well-known; successful (only applied to some occupations)
      書法家 / 书法家  ―  shūfǎjiā  ―  a well-known calligrapher
    7. mature; grown up
      See also:
        ―  Nǐ duō le?  ―  How old are you?
        ―  Tā bǐ tā .  ―  She is older than him.
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      nei5 zek3 gau2 hai6 gam3 daai6-2 gaa3 laa3. [Jyutping]
      Your dog isn't going to grow any older.
    8. (Cantonese) to grow up
      廣州 / 广州 [Cantonese]  ―  hai2 gwong2 zau1 daai6 [Jyutping]  ―  to grow up in Guangzhou
    9. (Cantonese) to be older than
      Antonym: ()
      / [Cantonese]  ―  ngo5 daai6 keoi5 loeng5 nin4. [Jyutping]  ―  I am older than them by two years.
    10. (dialectal) father
    11. (dialectal) father's elder or younger brother
    12. (Cantonese) small
      [Cantonese]  ―  gam3 daai6-1 [Jyutping]  ―  so puny
    13. (Cantonese, slang) to intimidate; to threaten
      [Cantonese]  ―  nei5 daai6 ngo5 aa4? [Jyutping]  ―  Are you trying to intimidate me?
    14. (Cantonese, euphemistic) number two
      [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      ngo5 hou2 gap1 aa3, jiu3 heoi3 daai6. [Jyutping]
      I need to go number two.
    15. Short for 大學大学 (dàxué, “university”). Used only in the abbreviation of the name.
        ―  Běi  ―  Peking University
    16. 45th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "greatness" (𝌲)
    17. A surname​.
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (だい) (dai)
    • Okinawan:  (だー) ()
    • Korean: (, dae)
    • Vietnamese: đại ()

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note:
    • dà - variant used in 大王 (ringleader; monarch).
  • Cantonese
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (7)
    Final () (25)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /dɑiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /dɑiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /dɑiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /dajH/
    Li
    Rong
    /dɑiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /dɑiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /dʱɑiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    dài
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    daai6

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Used in 大夫 (dàifu, “doctor”).
    2. Used in 大城 (Dàichéng, “Daicheng, Hebei”).
    3. Used in 大王 (dàiwáng, “(in operas, old novels) king; ringleader”).

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“too; so; etc.”).
    (This character, , is an ancient form of .)
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“big; large; great; extensive; etc.”).
    (This character, , is an ancient form of .)

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    だい
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC dɑiH).

    PronunciationEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (だい) (dai-

    1. big, large
      (だい)ピンチ
      dai-pinchi
      tremendous crisis
      (だい)ヒットする
      dai-hitto suru
      to become a smash hit
    2. the large part of
    3. (religion) arch-

    SuffixEdit

    (だい) (-dai

    1. Abbreviation of 大学 (daigaku, university).
      (とう)(だい)TōdaiTokyo Univ.
      (はん)(だい)HandaiOsaka Univ.
      (ほく)(だい)HokudaiHokkaido Univ.
      (ほく)(りく)(だい)HokurikudaiHokuriku Univ.
    Usage notesEdit

    This is often the first half two-character shorthand name of universities, for example 東大 (Tōdai, Tokyo University). Reading of first character often changes from kun'yomi to on'yomi.

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    おお
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /opo//ofo//owo//oː/

    From Old Japanese (opo), from Proto-Japonic *əpə.

    PrefixEdit

    (おお) (ō-おほ (ofo)?

    1. big; great
      (おお)馬鹿(ばか)
      ō-baka na
      extremely foolish
    Derived termsEdit
    Related termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC dɑiH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 땡〮 (Yale: ttáy)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 크다 (Yale: khuta) (Yale: tay)

    PronunciationEdit

    • (in 大口, 大邱, 大斗, 大文, and 大田):
    • (big; main; etc.):
      • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [tɛ(ː)] ~ [te̞(ː)]
      • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
        • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (keun dae))

    1. Hanja form? of (large; big). [noun]
    2. Hanja form? of (big, great; main, major). [affix]

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    PronunciationEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana でー, rōmaji dē-)

    1. big, large

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *opo, from Proto-Japonic *əpə.

    PronunciationEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana うふ, rōmaji ufu-)

    1. big; great
    2. greater
    Derived termsEdit
    Related termsEdit

    VietnameseEdit

    Hán tựEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: đại ((đạc)(nại)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: đại[1][2][3][4], đài[1][2], dãy[3][5], dảy[3], đẫy[3]

    1. Hán tự form of đại (big; great).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit