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U+5927, 大
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5927

[U+5926]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5928]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 37 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 大 (K), four-corner 40030/40800, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #37, .
Derived charactersEdit
Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 248, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5831
  • Dae Jaweon: page 492, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 520, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5927

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*daːl, *daːds
*daːds, *daːds
*tʰaːds, *daːds, *djads
*tʰaːds
*tʰaːds
*daːds, *tʰaːd
*daːds, *deːds
*daːds, *deːds
*tʰeːds
*deːds

Ideogram (指事): a person with arms stretched out as far as possible, implying the meaning of big/great/large.

Compare with , which is a man with bent legs with the meaning of weak.

Compare also , which is a man with arms outstretched and a crest or tattoo on his chest denoting culture or language, and to , which is a man with arms outstretched and leaning to side (running), denoting youth.

EtymologyEdit

Three pronunciations can be found in Modern Standard Chinese:

  1. Modern , from Middle Chinese L, from Old Chinese *lˤaːts. The phonological development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese is irregular. Original sense: "big" (Shijing). Derived senses: "size" (Mozi), "thick" (Zhuangzi), "to respect" (Mengzi), "to respect" (Xunzi), "to extol" (Gongyang Zhuan), "to exaggerate" (Classic of Rites), "arrogant" (Guoyu), "good" (I Ching), "(of time) long" (Erya), "senior" (Shijing).
  2. Modern dài, from Middle Chinese dɑiL, from Old Chinese *lˤaːts. This Middle Chinese pronunciation-preserving (i.e. literary) pronunciation occurs only in compounds such as 大夫 (dàifu, “doctor”) and 大王 (dàiwang, “(in operas, old novels) king; ringleader”).
  3. Modern tài, from Middle Chinese tʰɑiL, from Old Chinese *l̥ˤaːts. This is the ancient form of (tài, “too, excessively”) and is obsolete in modern languages.

Pronunciation 2), the diphthong reading, is traditionally regarded as the correct one. However, the monophthong reading 1) has been recorded as early as Han Dynasty, and Sui-Tang rhyme books record both. Both readings are reflected in Sino-xenic readings in non-Sinitic languages, although the diphthong readings dominate in compounds. Axel Schüssler postulates that all pronunciations can eventually be traced back to liquid initials, i.e. 1,2) **laːts, 3) **hlaːts.

The three pronunciations are cognate. Within Chinese, they are cognate with (OC *tʰaːds, “too, excessively”), (OC *tʰaːds, “big”), (OC *l'aːnʔ, “big, magniloquent, ridiculous”). There are no unambiguous Tibeto-Burman cognates. Proto-Tibeto-Burman *taj (big), from which came Written Tibetan མཐེ་བོ (mthe bo, thumb), Nung tʰɛ ("big, large, great"), Mikir tʰè, ketʰè ("id."), Burmese တယ် (tai, very), is often compared with. There is no final –s in the Tibeto-Burman words, but a –y, which, according to James Matisoff, "indicates emergent quality in stative verbs". Also compare Chinese (OC *ʔl'aːl, “many, much”), (OC *taː, “all”).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • daai6-2 - “only so big/old”;
  • daai6-1 - “small”.
Note: to5 - limited (e.g. 大(姑)娘, 大(姑)爺).
Note:
  • tōa/tā - vernacular;
  • tāi - literary.
Note:
  • dua7 - vernacular;
  • dai6 - literary.
Note:
  • 3du - vernacular;
  • 3da - literary.
Note:
  • dai5 - vernacular;
  • da4 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (7) (7)
Final () (25) (94)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/
Pan
Wuyun
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dajH/ /daH/
Li
Rong
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/
Wang
Li
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱɑiH/ /dʱɑH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dài duò
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ daH › ‹ dajH ›
Old
Chinese
/*lˤat-s/ (MC F!) /*lˤa[t]-s/
English big big

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 1934 1939
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daːds/ /*daːds/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. of great size; big; large; huge
    Antonyms: (xiǎo)
  2. big; great
  3. great of its kind
    • 昨天  ―  Zuótiān xià yǔ.  ―  There was heavy rain yesterday.
  4. in a extreme manner; greatly (with a monosyllabled verb)
      ―    ―  to cry violently
    吃一驚 / 吃一惊  ―  chīyījīng  ―  to be greatly shocked
  5. main; major
  6. well-known; successful (only applied to some occupations)
    書法家 / 书法家  ―  shūfǎjiā  ―  a well-known calligrapher
  7. mature; grown up
  8. 45th tetragram of the Taixuanjing
  9. (dialectal) father
  10. (dialectal) father's elder or younger brother
  11. (Cantonese) small
    • [Cantonese]  ―  gam3 daai6-1 [Jyutping]  ―  so puny
  12. (Cantonese, slang) to intimidate; to threaten
    • [Cantonese]  ―  Nei5 daai6 ngo5 aa4? [Jyutping]  ―  Are you trying to intimidate me?
  13. (Cantonese, euphemistic) number two
  14. Short for 大學大学 (dàxué, “university”). Used only in the abbreviation of the name.
      ―  Běi   ―  Peking University

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


Note:
  • dà - variant used in 大王 (ringleader; monarch).

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (7)
Final () (25)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/dɑiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/dɑiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dajH/
Li
Rong
/dɑiH/
Wang
Li
/dɑiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱɑiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dài

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 大夫 (dàifu, “doctor”).
  2. Only used in 大城 (Dàchéng, “Daicheng, Hebei”).
  3. Only used in 大王 (dàwáng, “(in operas, old novels) king; ringleader”).

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is an ancient form of .)

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (だい) (dai);  (たい) (tai)
  • Korean: (, dae)
  • Vietnamese: đại ()

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
だい
Grade: 1
on’yomi

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana だい, rōmaji dai-)

  1. big, large
     (だい)ピンチ
    dai-pinchi
    tremendous crisis
     (だい)ヒットする
    dai-hitto suru
    to become a smash hit
  2. the large part of
  3. university
Usage notesEdit

This is often the first half two-character shorthand name of universities, for example 東大 (Tokyo University, Tōdai)

Etymology 2Edit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana おお, rōmaji ō-, historical hiragana おほ)

  1. big; great
     (おお) ()鹿 ()
    ō-baka na
    extremely foolish

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(dae, tae)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): , (revised: dae, tae, McCune-Reischauer: tae, t'ae, Yale: tay, thay)
    • Name (hangeul): 크다 (revised: keuda, McCune-Reischauer: k'ŭda, Yale: khuta)
  1. Large.

CompoundsEdit


MulamEdit

AdjectiveEdit

(lo4)

  1. big

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

ReferencesEdit