See also:
U+9A5A, 驚
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9A5A

[U+9A59]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9A5B]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 187, +12, 22 strokes, cangjie input 廿大尸手火 (TKSQF), four-corner 48327, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1446, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45013
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1970, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4576, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9A5A

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kreŋ): phonetic  (OC *kreŋs) + semantic , as horses are skittish (easily startled).

EtymologyEdit

Compare Old Khmer kreṅa (to fear), whence Thai เกรง (greeng, to fear; to worry) (Schuessler, 2007).

Within Chinese, cognate with (OC *kreŋs, “to be respectful; to warn”), (OC *kreŋʔ, “to warn; to be on one's guard”) (Schuessler, 2007). A possible vocalic variant is (jīng, “to be cautious”).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • geng1 - vernacular;
  • ging1 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • giăng - vernacular;
    • gĭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kiaⁿ - vernacular;
    • keⁿ/kiⁿ - vernacular (limited use, e.g. 驚蟄);
    • keng - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠiæŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚiaŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiaŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kiajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiɐŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭɐŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ɐŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jīng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jīng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kreŋ/
    English be afraid

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6877
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kreŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to fear; to be afraid
      / [Cantonese]  ―  Geng1 me1 ze1? [Jyutping]  ―  What are you afraid of? What is there to be afraid of?
    2. (of a horse etc.) to be startled; to shy
    3. to frighten; to scare
    4. scary; frightening
    5. fearfully; I'm afraid that ...
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (きょう) (kyō)
    • Korean: (, gyeong)
    • Vietnamese: kinh ()

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReadingsEdit

    Derived termsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (gyeong) (hangeul , revised gyeong, McCune–Reischauer kyŏng, Yale kyeng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (kinh)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.