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See also:
U+9A5A, 驚
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9A5A

[U+9A59]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9A5B]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 187, +12, 22 strokes, cangjie input 廿大尸手火 (TKSQF), four-corner 48327, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1446, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45013
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1970, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4576, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9A5A

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kraː, *kreŋ, *kreŋʔ
*kaŋʔ, *kreŋʔ
*kreŋ
*kreŋʔ
*kreŋʔ, *ɡreŋs
*keŋʔ
*kreŋʔ, *ɡreŋ, *ɡreŋs
*kreŋs
*ɡreŋ
*ɡreŋs

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kreŋ): phonetic  (OC *kreŋs) + semantic , as horses are skittish (easily startled).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • geng1 - vernacular;
  • ging1 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • giăng - vernacular;
    • gĭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kiaⁿ - vernacular;
    • keⁿ/kiⁿ - vernacular (limited use, e.g. 驚蟄);
    • keng - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠiæŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚiaŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiaŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kiajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiɐŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭɐŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ɐŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jīng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jīng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kreŋ/
    English be afraid

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6877
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kreŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to fear; to be afraid
    2. (of a horse etc.) to be startled; to shy
    3. to frighten; to scare
    4. scary; frightening
    5. fearfully; I'm afraid that ...
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of 害怕 (“to fear; to be afraid of”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , , , , , , , ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 害怕, 懼怕, 畏懼
    Mandarin Beijing 害怕
    Taiwan 害怕,
    Harbin 害怕, 發毛
    Jinan 害怕, , 打怵
    Muping 害怕,
    Luoyang 害怕,
    Wanrong
    Xi'an 害怕, , 怯火
    Xuzhou 嫌怕, 打怵
    Yinchuan 害怕,
    Lanzhou 害怕, , 怯乎, 怯豁
    Ürümqi 害怕
    Wuhan 嚇不過,
    Chengdu 害怕, 虛火,
    Guiyang 害怕,
    Liuzhou
    Yangzhou 害怕, , 怕懼, 懼乎
    Nanjing 嚇怕,
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou , , ,
    Hong Kong , ,
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)
    Foshan ,
    Shunde
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Taishan 𢗉
    Kaiping (Chikan) 𢗉
    Dongguan
    Shaoguan ,
    Yunfu ,
    Yangjiang 𢗉
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Hakka Meixian , 怕畏, ,
    Changting
    Wuping
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi ,
    Jin Taiyuan 害怕,
    Xinzhou 著怕,
    Min Bei Jian'ou , , ,
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Min Nan Xiamen , 驚惶, , 懾屎
    Quanzhou , , 懾屎
    Zhangzhou , 驚惶,
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi 驚惶
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Yilan
    Magong
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Johor Bahru
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Pinghua Nanning ,
    Wu Shanghai ,
    Suzhou ,
    Hangzhou , , , 怕慌, 發毛
    Wenzhou ,
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Ningbo ,
    Xiang Changsha , 畏怯
    Shuangfeng
    Loudi

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

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    Derived termsEdit

    ReadingsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (gyeong) (hangeul , revised gyeong, McCune–Reischauer kyŏng, Yale kyeng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (kinh)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.