See also:
U+5149, 光
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5149

[U+5148]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+514A]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

Stroke order
 

(Kangxi radical 10, +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 火一山 (FMU), four-corner 90211, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 124, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1350
  • Dae Jaweon: page 262, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 266, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5149

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (fire) + (kneeling person) – fire over a person's head, emphasizing the shining of light (Shuowen).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *hwaŋ (shine; bright; yellow). Cognate with (OC *ɡʷaːŋ, “yellow”), (OC *kʰʷaːŋs, “bright; well-lit”), Burmese ဝင်း (wang:, bright).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note: guǎng - "only".
Note:
  • kng/kuiⁿ - vernacular;
  • kong - literary.
Note:
  • geng1 - vernacular;
  • guang1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kuɑŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kuaŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kuɑŋ²¹/
    Jinan /kuaŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /kuaŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kuaŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /kuaŋ²¹/ ~頭
    /kuaŋ²⁴/ 副詞
    Xining /kuɔ̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kuɑŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kuɑ̃³¹/
    Ürümqi /kuɑŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /kuã̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /kuaŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kuɑ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kuɒ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /kuɑŋ¹³/
    /kuə¹³/ ~油油
    Hohhot /kuɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /kuɑ̃⁵³/
    Suzhou /kuɑ̃⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /kuɑŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /kuɔ³³/
    Hui Shexian /ko³¹/
    Tunxi /kau¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /kuan³³/
    Xiangtan /kɔn³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kuɔŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kuoŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /koŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kwɔŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kwɔŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /kŋ̍⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kuoŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuaŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kuaŋ³³/
    /kɯŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /kuaŋ²³/
    /kue²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (102)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kwɑŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʷɑŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kwɑŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guāng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwong1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guāng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʷˁaŋ/
    English light, brightness

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4506
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʷaːŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. light; beam; ray (Classifier: m;  m)
        ―  dēngguāng  ―  lamplight
        ―  guāngdēng  ―  spotlight
      透過門縫進來 [MSC, trad.]
      透过门缝进来 [MSC, simp.]
      Yī shù guāng tòuguò ménféng shè jìnlái. [Pinyin]
      A beam of light shone through the door.
    2. glory; pride
      臺灣台湾  ―  Táiwān zhī guāng  ―  the pride of Taiwan; someone who has brought glory to Taiwan
    3. bright
    4. time
    5. shiny; smooth
    6. scenery; sight
    7. to make bare; to be naked
      走路走路  ―  guāngzhe jiǎo zǒulù  ―  to walk barefoot
        ―  guāngzhe ne.  ―  I'm not decent.
    8. only
      蔬菜 [MSC, trad.]
      蔬菜 [MSC, simp.]
      Bié guāng chī ròu, chī diǎn shūcài ba. [Pinyin]
      Don't eat only meat. Eat some vegetables.
    9. Particle used after verbs to show exhaustion or completion; until none is left
        ―  mài guāng le  ―  completely sold out
      已經所有 [MSC, trad.]
      已经所有 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ yǐjīng yòngguāng le suǒyǒu de qián. [Pinyin]
      I've already used up all of my money.
    10. Used in polite expressions.
    11. a surname
    SynonymsEdit
    • (light):
    • (bright):
    AntonymsEdit
    • (bright): (àn), (hēi)
    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (こう) ()
    • Korean: (, gwang)
    • Vietnamese: quang ()

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (102)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kwɑŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʷɑŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwaŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kwɑŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guàng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwong3
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4517
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʷaːŋs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to color

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひかり
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    ⟨pi1kari⟩ → */pʲikari//ɸikari//hikari/

    From Old Japanese.

    Nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 光る (hikaru, to shine, to glitter, to gleam).[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (ひかり) (hikari (counter )

    1. a physically perceived light:
      1. a light, beam, illumination
      2. a gleam, glow, ray
      3. a glimmer, shine, sparkle
        ダイヤモンドの(ひかり)
        daiyamondo no hikari
        a diamond's glitter / shine / twinkling
      4. a luster/lustre, polish, sheen
    2. a metaphorical light:
      1. glory, influence, power
      2. a glimmer, gleam
        (ぜん)()(ひかり)(うしな)
        zento ni hikari o ushinau
        to lose light regarding the future → future prospects grow dim
        (かい)(けつ)への(みち)(ひかり)()げかける
        kaiketsu e no michi ni hikari o nagekakeru
        to shed light on the way to a solution
      3. positive aspect
        インターネット()(だい)(ひかり)
        intānetto jidai no hikari
        the positive aspect of the internet age
      4. a displaying, putting on airs
      5. a vision, eyesight
    3. (optics) relating to light or vision: optical, photo-
      (ひかり)ファイバー
      hikari faibā
      optical fiber
    4. (colloquial) Short for 光り物 (hikarimono): sashimi with some of the silver-colored skin left
    QuotationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:光.

    SynonymsEdit
    AntonymsEdit
    Derived termsEdit

    IdiomEdit

    DescendantsEdit
    • Okinawan: (fikari)

    Proper nounEdit

    (ひかり) (Hikari

    1. a placename, such as that of a city in Yamaguchi Prefecture
    2. one of the bullet train services running on the 東海道 (Tōkaido) or 山陽 (San'yō) shinkansen
    3. a surname
    4. a female given name

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひか(る)
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Nominalization of the verb 光る (hikaru, to shine, to glitter, to gleam).

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Irregular reading)

    Proper nounEdit

    (ひかる) (Hikaru

    1. a male given name
    2. a female given name

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    こう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    /kʷau//kʷɔː//kɔː//koː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC kwɑŋ).

    Compare modern Mandarin (guāng), Hakka (kông), and Min Nan (kong).

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (こう) (くわう (kwau)?

    1. light, gleam, shine
    2. gleaming, shining
    3. scenery
    4. glory, honor/honour, pride
    5. enlightening
    6. exhaust, run out
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (こう) (くわう (kwau)?

    1. a male or female given name

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kwɑŋ).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 과ᇰ (Yale: kwàng)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 빗〮 (Yale: pís) 과ᇰ (Yale: kwàng)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (bit gwang))

    1. Hanja form? of (light; shine, lustre). [noun]
    2. Hanja form? of (light). [affix]

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ふぃちゃい
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with Japanese (hikari).

    The stem form of verb 光ゆん (fichayun, to shine, gleam).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ふぃちゃい, rōmaji fichai)

    1. light
    2. lush, polish, sheen
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ふぃかり
    Grade: 2

    Borrowed from Japanese (hikari).

    Doublet of (fichai) above.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ふぃかり, rōmaji fikari)

    1. light
    2. (rare, obsolete) authority, power, influence, honor
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit



    Old JapaneseEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 光る (pi1karu, to shine, to glitter, to gleam).[1][2]

    NounEdit

    (pi1kari) (kana ひかり)

    1. a light

    QuotationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:光.

    DescendantsEdit

    • Japanese: (hikari)

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: quang

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.