See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 10 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 火一山 (FMU), four-corner 90211, composition ⿱⿱)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 124, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1350
  • Dae Jaweon: page 262, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 266, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5149

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(fire) +  ‎(kneeling person) – fire over a person's head, emphasizing the shining of light (Shuowen).

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kuɑŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /kuaŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kuɑŋ²¹/
Jinan /kuaŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /kuaŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kuaŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /kuaŋ²¹/ ~頭
/kuaŋ²⁴/ 副詞
Xining /kuɔ̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kuɑŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kuɑ̃³¹/
Ürümqi /kuɑŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /kuã̠/
Nanjing /kuaŋ³¹/
Hefei /kuɑ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kuɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /kuɑŋ¹³/
/kuə¹³/ ~油油
Hohhot /kuɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kuɑ̃⁵³/
Suzhou /kuɑ̃⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /kuɑŋ³³/
Wenzhou /kuɔ³³/
Hui Shexian /ko³¹/
Tunxi /kau¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kaun³³/
Xiangtan /kɔn³³/
Gan Nanchang /kuɔŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kuoŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /koŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kwɔŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kwɔŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
/kŋ̍⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kuoŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuaŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kuaŋ³³/
/kɯŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kuaŋ²³/
/kui²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (28) (28)
Final () (102) (102)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kwɑŋ/ /kwɑŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʷɑŋ/ /kʷɑŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑŋ/ /kuɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwaŋ/ /kwaŋH/
Li
Rong
/kuɑŋ/ /kuɑŋH/
Wang
Li
/kuɑŋ/ /kuɑŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kwɑŋ/ /kwɑŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guāng guàng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwang ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʷˤaŋ/
English light, brightness

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4506 4517
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʷaːŋ/ /*kʷaːŋs/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. light; beam; ray   (Classifier: m; m)
  2. only
  3. to make bare
  4. shiny
  5. Particle used after verbs to show exhaustion or completion. until none is left
    /   ―  mài guāng le  ―  completely sold out
  6. bright
    Antonyms: (àn)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ひかり
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 光る ‎(hikaru, to shine, to glitter, to gleam).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana ひかり, romaji hikari)

  1. a physically perceived light: a light, a gleam, shining, glittering
    ダイヤモンドの (ひかり)
    daiyamondo no hikari
    a diamond's glitter / shine / twinkling
  2. a metaphorical light: glory, a glimmer, a gleam
    前途 (ぜんと) (ひかり) (うしな)
    zento ni hikari o ushinau
    to lose light regarding the future → future prospects grow dim
    解決 (かいけつ)への (みち) (ひかり) ()げかける
    kaiketsu e no michi ni hikari o nagekakeru
    to shed light on the way to a solution
  3. (in compounds) optics
     (ひかり)ファイバー
    hikari faibā
    optical fiber

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana ひかり, romaji Hikari)

  1. a place name, such as that of Hikari City in Yamaguchi Prefecture
  2. one of the bullet train services running on the Tōkaido/Sanyō shinkansen
  3. A surname​.
  4. A female given name

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
ひかる
Grade: 2
Irregular

Nominalization of the verb 光る ‎(hikaru, to shine, to glitter, to gleam).

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [çika̠ɾ̠ɯᵝ]

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana ひかる, romaji Hikaru)

  1. A male given name

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

/kwau//kwɔː//kɔː//koː/

From Middle Chinese ‎(kwang, light, brightness). Compare modern Mandarin guāng and Hakka kông, Min Nan kong.

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana こう, romaji , historical hiragana くわう)

  1. A male given name

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(gwang) (hangeul , revised gwang, McCune-Reischauer kwang, Yale kwang)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(quang, cuông, quàng, quăng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
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