1530s, from Medieval Latin Russi (“the people of Russia”), from Old East Slavic Русь (Rusĭ, “Rus”) (whence Arabic رُوس (rūs) and Byzantine Greek Ῥῶς (Rhôs)), which originally referred to a group of Varangians who established themselves near Kiev in the 9th century and ruled Kievan Rus; perhaps from Finnish Ruotsi (“Sweden”), from Old Swedish *roþs- (“related to rowing”); related to Old Norse Roþrslandi (“the land of rowing”), an older name of Roslagen, where the Finns first encountered the Swedes. Ultimately from Old Norse róðr (“steering oar”), from Proto-Germanic *rōþrą (“rudder”), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁reh₁- (“to row”).
- A country in Eastern Europe and North Asia, bordering on the Pacific and Arctic Oceans and the Baltic, Black, and Caspian Seas; established as an independent country in 1991 upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it is the largest country in the world. Co-official name: Russian Federation, formerly the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) (among other names) from 1917 to 1991. Capital and largest city: Moscow.
- (historical, loosely) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a very common name, although more formally Russia, the RSFSR, was one of several constituent republics of the USSR).
- (historical) The Russian Empire; the tsarist empire in Russia lasting from 1721 to 1917.
- (historical, dated) Kievan Rus; the medieval East Slavic state centered in Kiev.
- (dated, countable) Any of several East Slavic states descended from Kievan Rus, typically including Russia (Great Russia), Belarus (White Russia) and Ukraine (Little Russia).
- 1842, George Eliot, Selections from George Eliot's letters, Letter to Cara Bray, page 24:
- Or rather if I be attaining a better autocratship than that of the Emperor of all the Russias — the empire over self.
- 1914, Russia and the Russian People:
- Then there is White Russia and Red Russia, Great Russia and Little Russia, Russia of the Frozen North and Russia of the Far East — a Russia equally dangerous to every one of her neighbours […]
- Rossiia, Rossija, Rossiya (rare)
- Russian Federation, RF (abbreviation)
- POCCNR (humorous, Internet slang)
- Countries of the world
- (countries of Asia) country of Asia; Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Cyprus, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen
- (countries of Europe) country of Europe; Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Vatican City
- former Soviet Union
- former USSR
- Soviet Union (historical)
- USSR (historical)