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LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From prō- (in front of) +‎ ferō (carry, bear).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

prōferō (present infinitive prōferre, perfect active prōtulī, supine prōlātum); third conjugation, irregular

  1. I bring out, bring forth.
    • 121 CE, Suetonius, De vita Caesarum 2.18:
      Per idem tempus conditōrium et corpus Magnī Alexandrī, cum prōlātum ē penetrālī subiēcisset oculīs, corōnā aureā impositā ac flōribus aspersīs venerātus est cōnsultusque, num et Ptolemaeum īnspicere vellet, rēgem sē voluisse ait vidēre, nōn mortuōs.
      Around the same time he paid honours to the sarcophagus and body of Alexander the Great, when he examined it brought out of the mausoleum, by putting on it a golden crown and spreading flowers, and was asked whether he also wished to see the Ptolemaean mausoleum, he said that he wanted to see a king, not corpses.
    • Juvenal, Satires 1.126:
      'Prōfer, Galla, caput.' 'Nōlī vexāre, quiēscit.'
      'Bring out your head, Galla.' 'Don't disturb her, she's resting.'
  2. I appear, show myself.
  3. I offer, proffer.
  4. I stretch out, extend.
  5. (military) I march on, advance.
  6. (figuratively) I produce, induce growth.
  7. I utter, pronounce.
  8. I put off, defer, adjourn.
  9. (painting) I bring out, represent distinctly.
    • c. 77 CE – 79 CE, Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia 35.56:
      [] Cīmōnem Cleōnaeum. Hic catagrapha invēnit, hoc est oblīquās imāginēs, et variē fōrmāre voltūs, respicientēs suspicientēsve vel dēspicientēs; articulīs membra distīnxit, vēnās prōtulit, praeterque in vestibus rūgās et sinūs invēnit.
      [] Cimon of Cleonae. He invented profile paintings, that is, side-views, and fashioning faces in different ways: looking back, up or down; he distinguished members from joints, brought out the veins, and beside that devised creases and folds in clothes.
  10. (figuratively, with se) I raise or elevate myself from a lower station.
  11. I make known, publicize.
  12. I discover, invent, reveal.
  13. I quote, cite, mention.
    • c. 160 BCE, Publius Terentius Afer, Phormio 2.3.48:
      DEMIPHO. Dī tibi maleficiant! PHORMIO. Prīmus essēs memoriter
      prōgeniem vestram ūsque ab avō atque atavō prōferēns.
      DEMIPHO. May the Gods confound you! PHORMIO. You'd have been the first, from memory,
      to cite your line of kindred, even as far back as from grandfather and great-grandfather.
  14. I impel.
  15. I prolong.

ConjugationEdit

   Conjugation of prōferō (third conjugation, irregular, suppletive)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present prōferō prōfers prōfert prōferimus prōfertis prōferunt
imperfect prōferēbam prōferēbās prōferēbat prōferēbāmus prōferēbātis prōferēbant
future prōferam prōferēs prōferet prōferēmus prōferētis prōferent
perfect prōtulī prōtulistī prōtulit prōtulimus prōtulistis prōtulērunt, prōtulēre
pluperfect prōtuleram prōtulerās prōtulerat prōtulerāmus prōtulerātis prōtulerant
future perfect prōtulerō prōtuleris prōtulerit prōtulerimus prōtuleritis prōtulerint
passive present prōferor prōferris, prōferre prōfertur prōferimur prōferiminī prōferuntur
imperfect prōferēbar prōferēbāris, prōferēbāre prōferēbātur prōferēbāmur prōferēbāminī prōferēbantur
future prōferar prōferēris, prōferēre prōferētur prōferēmur prōferēminī prōferentur
perfect prōlātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect prōlātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect prōlātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present prōferam prōferās prōferat prōferāmus prōferātis prōferant
imperfect prōferrem prōferrēs prōferret prōferrēmus prōferrētis prōferrent
perfect prōtulerim prōtulerīs prōtulerit prōtulerīmus prōtulerītis prōtulerint
pluperfect prōtulissem prōtulissēs prōtulisset prōtulissēmus prōtulissētis prōtulissent
passive present prōferar prōferāris, prōferāre prōferātur prōferāmur prōferāminī prōferantur
imperfect prōferrer prōferrēris, prōferrēre prōferrētur prōferrēmur prōferrēminī prōferrentur
perfect prōlātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect prōlātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present prōfer prōferte
future prōfertō prōfertō prōfertōte prōferuntō
passive present prōferre prōferiminī
future prōfertor prōfertor prōferuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives prōferre prōtulisse prōlātūrum esse prōferrī prōlātum esse prōlātum īrī
participles prōferēns prōlātūrus prōlātus prōferendus, prōferundus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
prōferendī prōferendō prōferendum prōferendō prōlātum prōlātū

Related termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • profero in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • profero in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • profero in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the earth brings forth fruit, crops: terra effert (more rarely fert, but not profert) fruges
    • to enlarge the boundaries of a kingdom: fines (imperii) propagare, extendere, (longius) proferre
    • to adjourn, delay: diem proferre (Att. 13. 14)
    • to become known, become a topic of common conversation (used of things): foras efferri, palam fieri, percrebrescere, divulgari, in medium proferri, exire, emanare
    • to cite a person or a thing as an example: aliquem (aliquid) exempli causa ponere, proferre, nominare, commemorare
    • to bring a subject forward into discussion: in medium proferre aliquid
    • to quote a passage of Plato: locum Platonis afferre, proferre (not citare)
    • to produce as a witness: aliquem testem dare, edere, proferre