Open main menu

FinnishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *ku (from Proto-Uralic *ku- ~ *ko-) +‎ -ka.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈkukɑ/, [ˈkukɑ]
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ukɑ
  • Hyphenation: ku‧ka

PronounEdit

kuka

  1. (interrogative) who; (when followed by a modifier in elative case, -sta/-stä) which one (of + a noun referring to people).
  2. (indefinite) whoever.
  3. (relative) who, when the pronoun refers to the whole of the preceding sentence. [1]
    En tiedä, kuka sen teki.
    I don't know who did it.
    but:
    Tässä on mies, joka sen teki.
    This is the man who did it.
  4. (relative, dialectal) who

Usage notesEdit

  • The singular forms are sometimes used colloquially instead of the actual plural forms. Ketä is particularly common for keitä. In some dialects ketä is used in place of kuka.

InflectionEdit

  • Modern inflections of kuka are based around the stem form ke- or kene-.
  • The modern adessive, ablative and allative singular cases have alternative forms of equal value. Thus kenellä, keneltä, kenelle can equally be expressed as kellä, keltä, kelle.
  • Following the pattern of other personal pronouns the accusative form is kenet. (compare minut, sinut, etc.)

Forms of the word based on a stem form of ku- have become old fashioned and somewhat poetic even though the nominative singular kuka remains modern. The nominative form ken is found only in archaic or poetic language.

Thus, “Kuta sinä rakastat?” could be translated as “Whom dost thou love?”

Some cases of kuka/ken are hardly used. The inflection table below shows the archaic or otherwise disappeared/disappearing forms in brackets.

The instructive plural kuin with the stem -ka*, the instructive singular kun* and the causative singular kuten* (also as the dated, archaic form: kutenka*) are used as adverbs with completely different meanings from “who”.

Note: In the inflection table below, poetic and/or archaic forms are shown in brackets and modern usage without brackets. See also the declension of the negative form ei kukaan.

SynonymsEdit

  • (who): ken ( the nominative singular is archaic, see "Inflection" section below)
  • (whoever): kuka tahansa, ken

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Further readingEdit

AnagramsEdit


HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [ˈkukɒ]
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: ku‧ka

Etymology 1Edit

Origin uncertain; perhaps an Italian loan word, compare Northern Italian cuco (goofy).

AdjectiveEdit

kuka

  1. dumb (as a fish), tongue-tied (not saying a word)

Etymology 2Edit

Via Czech, from German KUKA, short for Keller und Knappich Augsburg, a German firm which manufactured and supplied orange refuse collection vehicles. Today the company KUKA produces industrial robots and automation technologies.

NounEdit

kuka (plural kukák)

  1. garbage can, refuse bin
DeclensionEdit
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative kuka kukák
accusative kukát kukákat
dative kukának kukáknak
instrumental kukával kukákkal
causal-final kukáért kukákért
translative kukává kukákká
terminative kukáig kukákig
essive-formal kukaként kukákként
essive-modal
inessive kukában kukákban
superessive kukán kukákon
adessive kukánál kukáknál
illative kukába kukákba
sublative kukára kukákra
allative kukához kukákhoz
elative kukából kukákból
delative kukáról kukákról
ablative kukától kukáktól
Possessive forms of kuka
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. kukám kukáim
2nd person sing. kukád kukáid
3rd person sing. kukája kukái
1st person plural kukánk kukáink
2nd person plural kukátok kukáitok
3rd person plural kukájuk kukáik

IngrianEdit

PronounEdit

kuka

  1. which

PitjantjatjaraEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

kuka

  1. edible animal
  2. meat

Derived termsEdit


PolishEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

kuka

  1. third-person singular present of kukać

QuechuaEdit

NounEdit

kuka

  1. coca

DeclensionEdit


Serbo-CroatianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *kuka (hook, hook-shaped). Akin to kȕk.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /kûka/
  • Hyphenation: ku‧ka

NounEdit

kȕka f (Cyrillic spelling ку̏ка)

  1. hook

DeclensionEdit

NounEdit

kuka (Cyrillic spelling кука)

  1. genitive singular of kuk

ReferencesEdit

  • kuka” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Tok PisinEdit

NounEdit

kuka

  1. crab