TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 85 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 水女 (EV), four-corner 34140, composition)

  1. you (archaic, informal) (also written in pre-Han times, e.g. in Confucius' Analects)
  2. Rú (汝), a river in Henan province (pre-Han times)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 606, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17138
  • Dae Jaweon: page 999, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1555, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6C5D

CantoneseEdit

HanziEdit

(Yale yu5)


JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

PronounEdit

(hiragana , romaji i)

  1. second person pronoun; you
    • 712: Kojiki (page 156)
      大久米命二人、召兄宇迦斯罵詈云、此二字以音所作仕奉於大殿内者、意禮此二字以音先入、明白其將爲仕奉之状而[...]

Etymology 2Edit

PronounEdit

(hiragana まし, romaji mashi)

  1. second person pronoun; you
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3440)
      許乃河泊尓 安佐菜安良布児 奈礼毛安礼毛 余知乎曽母弖流 伊仾児多婆里尓 一云 麻之毛安礼母
Derived termsEdit
  • (imashi)
  • (mimashi)

Etymology 3Edit

Prefix i + pronoun mashi. See also mimashi.

PronounEdit

(hiragana いまし, romaji imashi)

  1. second person pronoun; you
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū (book 11, poem #2517)
      足千根乃 母尓障良婆 無用 伊麻思毛吾毛 事應成
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3359)
      駿河能宇美 於思敝尓於布流 波麻都豆良 伊麻思乎多能美 波播尓多我比奴 一云 於夜尓多我比奴
    • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #29)
      朕子伊末之授給

Etymology 4Edit

Honorific prefix mi + pronoun mashi. See also imashi.

PronounEdit

(hiragana みまし, romaji mimashi)

  1. second person pronoun; you
    • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #5)
      藤原宮天下所知美麻斯坐天皇美麻斯天下之業詔大命聞食恐受賜懼坐事衆聞食宣。可久賜時美麻斯[...]吾子美麻斯授賜[...]
    • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #51)
      美末斯大臣萬政總以<...> 彌麻之大臣之家内子等乎母<...>美麻之大臣罷道[...]
    • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #52)
      大命坐詔美麻斯大臣仕奉來狀[...]

Etymology 5Edit

Old Japanese. Possibly cognate with Korean (neo, you, second-person singular informal pronoun).

PronounEdit

(hiragana , romaji na)

  1. second person personal pronoun; you
    • 712: Kojiki (poem #5)
      夜知富許能 加微能美許登夜 阿賀淤富久迩奴斯 許曾波 遠迩伊麻世婆 宇知微流 斯麻能佐岐邪岐 加岐微流 伊蘇能佐岐淤知受和加久佐能 都麻母多勢良米 阿波母與 賣迩斯阿禮婆 遠岐弖遠波那志 遠岐弖 都麻波那斯 [...]
    • 720: Nihon Shoki (poem #90)
      飫裒枳瀰能 耶陛能矩瀰哿枳 哿哿梅騰謀 嗚阿摩之耳彌 哿哿農倶彌柯枳
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3353)
      阿良多麻能 伎倍乃波也之尓 乎多弖天 由伎可都麻思自 移乎佐伎太多尼
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3468)
      夜麻杼里乃 乎呂能波都乎尓 可賀美可家 刀奈布倍美許曽 尓与曽利鶏米
    • c. 920: Azuma Asobi Uta (#2)
      衣 和賀世古加 介左乃古止天者 奈奈川乎乃 也川乎乃古止乎 之良部 太留古止也 乎加介也末乃 可川乃介也 乎々々々

Etymology 6Edit

The long form of nare. Compound of na and suffix re.

PronounEdit

(hiragana なれ, romaji nare)

  1. second person personal pronoun; you
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3440)
      許乃河泊尓 安佐菜安良布児 奈礼毛安礼毛 余知乎曽母弖流 伊仾児多婆里尓 一云 麻之毛安礼母
    • c. 913 Kokin Wakashū (#904)
      ちはやぶる宇治のはしもり なれをしぞあはれとは思ふ 年のへぬれば

Etymology 7Edit

Compound of na and muchi.

PronounEdit

(hiragana なむち, romaji namuchi)

  1. second person pronoun; you

Etymology 8Edit

/namuti/ > /namti/ > /namdi/ > /nandi/. From earlier namuchi. Final voicing due to influence of medial voiced /m/.

PronounEdit

(hiragana なむぢ, romaji nanji)

  1. second person personal pronoun; you
    • c. late 9th–mid-10th century: Taketori Monogatari
      大納言わらゐて、「なむぢらが君の使と名を流しつ。君の仰ごとをば、いかが背くべき」との給て [...]
    • c. late 9th–mid-10th century: Taketori Monogatari
      大納言起きゐてのたまはく、「汝(なむぢ)らよくもて來ずなりぬ。龍は鳴る神のるいにこそありけれ。[...]」

Etymology 9Edit

/namuti/ > /namti/ > /namdi/ > /nandi/ > /nanzi/ [nand͡ʑi]

PronounEdit

(hiragana なんじ, historical hiragana なんぢ, romaji nanji)

  1. second person pronoun; you
    • c. late 9th–mid-10th century: Taketori Monogatari
      汝(なんぢ)が持ちて侍るかぐや姫たてまつれ。」
    • c. late 9th–mid-10th century: Taketori Monogatari
      いはく、「汝(なんぢ)、おさなき人、いささかなる功徳を翁つくりけるによりて、汝(なんぢ)が助けにとて、かた時のほどとて下ししを[...]」

Etymology 10Edit

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

ReadingsEdit

ReferencesEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(yeo) (hangeul , revised yeo, McCune-Reischauer yŏ, Yale ye)


MandarinEdit

HanziEdit

(Pinyin (ru3), Wade-Giles ju3)


Min NanEdit

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

(traditional and simplified, POJ lú, jú)

  1. second personal pronoun, you (Teochew and some Hokkien dialects, primarily in Southeast Asia and Xiamen)[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.xmculture.gov.cn/mtwh/mnwh/mnfy/200604/t20060428_1880.htm

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nhữ, nhớ, nhở, nhởi, nhứ, nhử, dử, nhừ, nở)

Last modified on 3 January 2014, at 19:06