Last modified on 18 December 2014, at 10:07

See also: and

TranslingualEdit

simpl.
trad.

EtymologyEdit

Pictogram (象形) – cloth on a loom, with threads crossing. Used phonetically.

Han characterEdit

(radical 89 +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 一火月大 (MFBK), four-corner 10227)

  1. you
  2. that, those
  3. final particle
  4. used in transliteration

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 691, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1104, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 27, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+723E

ChineseEdit

simpl.
trad.

PronunciationEdit

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (爾), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 日 (38)
Final: 支
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 兒氏切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵiᴇX/ /ȵʑie̯X/ /ȵieX/ /ȵiɛX/ /ȵiə̆X/ /ȵʑǐeX/ /ȵʑjɛX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
ěr ‹ nejX › /*nˤ[əә][r]ʔ/ numerous
ěr ‹ nyeX › /*n[əә][r]ʔ/ (adv. suffix)
ěr ‹ nyeX › /*n[əә][r]ʔ/ you(r)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2817 2 /*njelʔ/ 說文尒聲,甲金文象檷初文,取林義光說

JapaneseEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana おれ, romaji ore)

  1. (archaic, vulgar) you

(hiragana なんじ, romaji nanji)

  1. (archaic) thou, you

InterjectionEdit

(hiragana しか, romaji shika)

  1. (archaic) like that, as such
  2. yeah, uh-huh

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

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ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

  • 爾来 (jirai): from that time on
  • 爾後 (jigo): from this time on

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(i) (hangeul , revised i, McCune-Reischauer i, Yale i)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nhĩ, nhãi)

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