See also:
U+540E, 后
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-540E

[U+540D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+540F]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 30, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 竹一口 (HMR), four-corner 72261, composition𠂋)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 176, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3298
  • Dae Jaweon: page 393, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 580, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+540E

ChineseEdit

 
Wikipedia has articles on:
 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Spring and Autumn Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Lateral inversion of generates (OC *slɯ).

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s-gaw (head). Cognate with Tibetan གོ (go, head; headman), མགོ (mgo, head, top, beginning).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (33)
Final () (137) (137)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦəuX/ /ɦəuH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦəuX/ /ɦəuH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣəuX/ /ɣəuH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦəwX/ /ɦəwH/
Li
Rong
/ɣuX/ /ɣuH/
Wang
Li
/ɣəuX/ /ɣəuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣə̯uX/ /ɣə̯uH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hòu hòu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hau6 hau6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hòu
Middle
Chinese
‹ huwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɢˁ(r)oʔ/
English sovereign; queen

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 5168 5172
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
𠋫
Old
Chinese
/*ɡoːʔ/ /*ɡoːs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. king; ruler; emperor
  2. queen; empress
      ―  wánghòu  ―  queen
  3. A surname​.
Usage notesEdit
  • The surname is not to be confused with the surname .

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“behind; rear; back; later; after; afterwards; etc.”).
(This character, , is the simplified and variant traditional form of .)
Notes:

Usage notesEdit

In the traditional-Chinese literate context, the use of as a variant of is mostly confined to the occurrences in a few well-known historical texts such as the Great Learning (《大學》).


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 6
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦəuX, ɦəuH).

AffixEdit

(こう) (

  1. monarch, ruler, sovereign
  2. empress, queen, or other female monarch
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
きさき
Grade: 6
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

Derivation unknown.

Possibly originally a contraction of (kimi saki, literally lordly good fortune). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(きさき) (kisaki

  1. an empress
    Synonym: 皇后 (kōgō)
  2. any other wife of a male aristocrat, such as a queen
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
きさい
Grade: 6
Irregular
Alternative spelling
皇后

/kisaki//kisaĩ//kisai/

Sound shift from kisaki above.

Appears to be less common in isolation than the kisaki reading above.[2][1]

NounEdit

(きさい) (kisai

  1. (uncommon, archaic) Same as きさき (kisaki) above
    • c. 10011014, Murasaki Shikibu, Genji Monogatari (Agemaki)
      「もし、()(なか)(うつ)りて、(みかど)(きさい)の、(おぼ)しおきつるままにも、おはしまさば...」
      “Moshi, yononaka utsurite, mikado, kisai no, oboshi-okitsuru mama ni mo, owashimasaba...”
      (please add an English translation of this example)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 6
kan’yōon
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
2
[noun] later, afterwards, some time after the present
[suffix] after
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above Sino-Japanese term.)

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦəuH).

Historical readings

PronunciationEdit

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum hu))

  1. Hanja form? of (ruler; monarch).
  2. (suffix) Hanja form? of (queen; empress).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: hậu

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.