U+541B, 君
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-541B

[U+541A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+541C]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 30, +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 尸大口 (SKR), four-corner 17607, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 177, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3323
  • Dae Jaweon: page 394, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 595, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+541B

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠺞
𠁈
𠱩
𠱭
𠱰

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *klun) and ideogrammic compound (會意): phonetic (OC *ɢʷlinʔ, (hand holding a rod) to administer) + semantic (mouth). In the oracle bones and early Zhou bronze inscriptions, (jūn) was often interchanged with . Shuowen suggests that represents commands, but it may simply be decorative.

EtymologyEdit

Unknown. Here are several possibilities:

The ACG sense is an orthographic borrowing from Japanese (-kun), which is in turn from Chinese.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕyn⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕyn⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕyn²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕyẽ²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕyə̃²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕyn²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕyẽ²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕyə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕỹn³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕyn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕyn⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕĩ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /t͡ɕyn³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕyn²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕyəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕyŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕỹŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕyŋ⁵³/
/t͡ɕioŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡ɕyən⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡sz̩ʷen³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕyʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /t͡ɕyan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕyn³³/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕyn³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕyn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kiun⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kwɐn⁵³/
Nanning /kʷɐn⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kwɐn⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kun⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kœyŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kuŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kin²³/
/kun²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (59)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨun/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiun/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiuən/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kun/
Li
Rong
/kiuən/
Wang
Li
/kĭuən/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯uən/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jūn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gwan1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jūn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjun ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.qur/
English lord; ruler

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7289
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*klun/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. sovereign; monarch; ruler; chief; prince; lord
  2. (historical) A honorific title: lord
  3. (literary, honorific) you; your (referring to a male)
  4. A polite form of address used among couples.
  5. to dominate; to reign
  6. (ACG, Internet slang) -kun
  7. (ACG, Internet slang) Affectionate name suffix.
    字幕  ―  zìmùjūn  ―  fansubber
  8. A surname​.

Related termsEdit

  • (ACG) (sāng, “-san”), (jiàng, “-chan”), (tàn, “-tan”), (yàng, “-sama”)

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (くん) (kun)
  • Korean: (, gun)
  • Vietnamese: quân ()

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. king, lord, ruler
  2. person of high rank
  3. form of address to fellow colleagues or inferiors

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
きみ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(uncommon)

⟨ki1mi1 → */kʲimʲi//kimi/

From Old Japanese. Possibly a borrowing from the Sillan word for king, written with the character 今 (kum).[1] The same morpheme survives in the second syllable of the Modern Korean word 임금 (imgeum).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(きみ) (kimi

  1. a ruler of a country
    1. an emperor
      Synonyms: 天子 (tenshi), 天皇 (tennō)
    2. a lord
    Antonym: (omi)
  2. a master
    Synonyms: 主君 (shukun), 主人 (shujin)
  3. a nobleman or other person of high(er) rank
  4. (after a (ga) or (no) particle) term of respect to another person
  5. (historical, archaic) a prostitute
  6. (historical) one of the hereditary titles bestowed to local chiefs in ancient Japan
Derived termsEdit

PronounEdit

(きみ) (kimi

  1. (informal, chiefly men's speech) second-person personal pronoun: you (romantic)
    • 1086, Goshūi Wakashū (book 12, poem 669; also Hyakunin Isshu, poem 50)
      (きみ)がため()しからざりし(いのち)さへ(なが)くもがなと(おも)ひけるかな
      kimi ga tama oshikarazarishi inochi sae nagaku mogana to omoikeru kana
      I thought I would give up my life to hold you in my arms, but after a night together, I find myself wishing that I could live for ever.[4]
    • 2000 September 18, Inokuma, Shinobu, “PART(パート)(いち) (あめ)のち… [PART1 After the Rain…]”, in SALAD(サラダ) DAYS(デイズ) [SALAD DAYS], volume 11 (fiction), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 110:
      (おれ)(べつ)にいいけど…キミ(がっ)(こう)で「()らない(ひと)について()っちゃダメ」とか、(おそ)わんなかった?
      Ore wa betsu ni ii kedo… Kimi, gakkō de “shiranai hito ni tsuite itcha dame” to ka, osowan nakatta?
      Fine by me… But haven’t you been taught at school that “you shouldn’t go anywhere with strangers”?
    • 2005 November 9, Watsuki, Nobuhiro, “()(ソウ)(レン)(キン)ファイナル [Armed Alchemy: The Final Act]”, in ()(ソウ)(レン)(キン) [Armed Alchemy], volume 9, Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN:
      ()るぞ カズキ!()(はな)すな!キミ(わたし)(いっ)(しん)(どう)(たい) キミ()(とき)(わたし)()(とき)だ!
      Kuru zo Kazuki! Te o hanasu na! Kimi to watashi wa isshin dōtai Kimi ga shinu toki ga watashi ga shinu toki da!
      Incoming, Kazuki! Don’t let go! You and me, together as one. When you die, I die!
Usage notesEdit
  • When used in lyrics and poetry, this word is considered less colloquial and more poetic than in spoken language.

Etymology 2Edit

The kimi changes to gimi as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

SuffixEdit

(ぎみ) (-gimi

  1. indicates respect
    (ちち)(ぎみ)
    chichi-gimi
    your father
Usage notesEdit
  • There is no direct translation in English – as with other Japanese honorifics, it might roughly correspond to dear, as in “your dear father”.
  • Respectful suffixes also serve to indicate whose relative is in question: rather than “my father” and “your father”, one would say (chichi, father) and 父君 (chichi-gimi, dear father).
  • Used of nobles. Attaches to close family relationship nouns such as (haha, mother), (ane, sister), (hime, daughter of a noble family, princess).
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
くん
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC kɨun).

SuffixEdit

(くん) (-kun

  1. suffix for boys' names
  2. indicates respect
  3. indicates familiarity
Usage notesEdit

-kun is often used as a suffix when calling someone. The listener is lower or the same level in social position and is often, but not always, male.

DescendantsEdit

  • English: -kun
  • Chinese:
    Mandarin: (jūn)

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
きんじ
Grade: 3

/kimud͡ʑi//kind͡ʑi/

Shift from older きむぢ (kimudi → kimuji).[5]

PronounEdit

(きんじ) (kinjiきんぢ (kindi)?

  1. second person personal pronoun: you
    • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Fukiage, ge)[6]
      きんぢ、この手を傳へ施す物ならば、この世になからん世なりとも、訪ひ守らん。
    • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Kurabiraki, jō)[7]
      「[...] ある時は「きんぢがつたなく吾を人気なくハ生み出したる」とさへぞの給フや」
    • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Kuniyuzuri, jō)[8]
      喜びて、見給ヒて、聲を放ちて「我が親の今々とし給ひしまで「我はきんぢを思ふにぞ黄泉もえ往くまじき。[...]」」

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ki-Moon, Lee; Ramsey, S. Robert (2011) A History of the Korean Language[1], page 59
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. ^ Peter MacMillan, translator (2018) One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each: A Treasury of Classical Japanese Verse, Penguin UK, →ISBN
  5. ^ きんじ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[2] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, →ISBN
  6. ^ Kōno, Tama (c. 970–999) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 10: Utsubo Monogatari 1 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1959, →ISBN.
  7. ^ Kōno, Tama (1961) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 11: Utsubo Monogatari 2 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
  8. ^ Kōno, Tama (1962) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 12: Utsubo Monogatari 3 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC kɨun).

Historical readings

PronunciationEdit

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum gun))

  1. Hanja form? of (sovereign).
  2. Hanja form? of (young man; young sir).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: quân, vua

  1. sovereign, monarch, ruler, chief, prince

ReferencesEdit