See also: ail-, -ail, àil, áil, -áil, and Äil

English edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English eilen, from Old English eġlan, eġlian (to trouble, afflict), from Proto-West Germanic *aglijan, from Proto-Germanic *aglijaną (to trouble, vex), cognate with Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌻𐌾𐌰𐌽 (agljan, to distress).

Verb edit

ail (third-person singular simple present ails, present participle ailing, simple past and past participle ailed)

  1. (transitive) To cause to suffer; to trouble, afflict. (Now chiefly in interrogative or indefinite constructions.)
    Have some chicken soup. It's good for what ails you.
    • 1611, The Holy Bible, [] (King James Version), London: [] Robert Barker, [], →OCLC, Genesis 21:17:
      What aileth thee, Hagar?
    • 2011, “Connubial bliss in America”, in The Economist:
      Not content with having in 1996 put a Defence of Marriage Act (DOMA) on the statue book, Congress has now begun to hold hearings on a Respect for Marriage Act. Defended, respected: what could possibly ail marriage in America?
  2. (intransitive) To be ill; to suffer; to be troubled.
Quotations edit
Translations edit

Noun edit

ail (plural ails)

  1. (obsolete) An ailment; trouble; illness.
Translations edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English eyle, eile, from Old English eġle (hideous, loathsome, hateful, horrid, troublesome, grievous, painful). Cognate with Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌻𐌿𐍃 (aglus, hard, difficult).

Adjective edit

ail (comparative ailer or more ail, superlative ailest or most ail)

  1. (obsolete) Painful; troublesome.

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle English eile, eyle, eiȝle, from Old English eġl (an ail; awn; beard of barley; mote), from Proto-Germanic *agilō (awn), related to *ahaz (ear (of grain)).[1] Cognate with German Achel, Egel, Ägel.

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

ail (plural ails)

  1. The awn of barley or other types of corn.

References edit

  1. ^ Friedrich Kluge (1883), “Achel”, in , John Francis Davis, transl., Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, published 1891

Anagrams edit

Dalmatian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Latin allium.

Noun edit

ail

  1. (Vegliot) garlic

References edit

  • Ive, A. (1886), “L'antico dialetto di Veglia [The old dialect of Veglia]”, in G. I. Ascoli, editor, Archivio glottologico italiano [Italian linguistic archive], volume 9, Rome: E. Loescher, pages 115–187

French edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old French, from Latin allium.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ail m (plural ails or aulx)

  1. garlic

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Haitian Creole: lay (from l’ail)
  • Mauritian Creole: lay (from l’ail)
  • Moore: lay (from l’ail)

Further reading edit

Anagrams edit

Irish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old Irish ail (boulder, rock), from Proto-Celtic *ɸales-, from Proto-Indo-European *pelis-, *pels- (stone).[1]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ail f (genitive singular aileach, nominative plural aileacha or ailche)

  1. stone, rock

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Mutation edit

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
ail n-ail hail not applicable
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References edit

  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*fales-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 120

Further reading edit

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

Noun edit

ail

  1. Alternative form of ale (beer)

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

ail

  1. Alternative form of hayle (hail)

Norman edit

Etymology edit

From Old French, from Latin allium.

Noun edit

ail m (uncountable)

  1. (Jersey) garlic

Old Irish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Possibly from Proto-Celtic *ɸalos, from Proto-Indo-European *pels-, *pelis- (rock, cliff), see also German Fels (rock).[1]

The declension was not stable at the start of the Old Irish period, with a shift from an i-stem declension to a k-stem declension ongoing.

Noun edit

ail f (genitive ailech, nominative plural ailich)

  1. rock
  2. foundation
Inflection edit
Feminine i-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ail ailL ailiH
Vocative ail ailL ailiH
Accusative ailN ailL ailiH
Genitive aloH, alaH aloH, alaH aileN
Dative ailL ailib ailib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization
Feminine k-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ail ailichL ailich
Vocative ail ailichL ailchea
Accusative ailichN ailichL ailchea
Genitive ailech ailech ailechN
Dative ailichL ailchib ailchib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization
Descendants edit

Mutation edit

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
ail unchanged n-ail
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

·ail

  1. third-person singular present indicative conjunct of ailid

Mutation edit

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
·ail unchanged ·n-ail
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References edit

  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*fales-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 120

Further reading edit

Scots edit

Etymology edit

From Middle English eilen, from Old English eġlan, eġlian (to trouble, afflict), from Proto-West Germanic *aglijan.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

ail (third-person singular simple present ails, present participle ailin, simple past ailt, past participle ailt)

  1. to trouble, afflict (of body or mind)
  2. to hinder, prevent
  3. to be ill

References edit

Welsh edit

Welsh numbers (edit)
20
 ←  1 2 3  → [a], [b]
    Cardinal (masculine): dau
    Cardinal (feminine): dwy
    Ordinal: ail, eilfed
    Ordinal abbreviation: 2il
    Adverbial: dwywaith
    Multiplier: dwbl

Alternative forms edit

  • 2il (abbreviation)

Etymology edit

From Middle Welsh eil, from Proto-Brythonic *ėl, from Proto-Celtic *alyos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos (other).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

ail (feminine singular ail, plural ail, not comparable) (precedes the noun, triggers soft mutation of all nouns)

  1. (ordinal number) second
    Synonym: eilfed
    yr ail lawrthe second floor

Derived terms edit

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
ail unchanged unchanged hail
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.