Aragonese edit

Etymology edit

From Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand), from PIE *steh₂-.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /esˈta(ɾ)/
  • Rhymes: -a(ɾ)
  • Syllabification: es‧tar

Verb edit

estar

  1. to be

Usage notes edit

Contrary to other Iberian languages, Aragonese only makes use of a verb "to be", this means there is no such verb as "ser" or alike.

Conjugation edit

⠀⠀⠀⠀Impersonal forms
Infinitive estar⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
Gerund estando⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
Particles ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀estau m, estada f, estaus m pl, estadas f pl u estato m, estata f estatos, m pl, estatas f pl⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀Personal forms
Indicative yo él/ella nusatros/as busatros/as ellos/as
Present ⠀⠀⠀⠀soi ⠀⠀⠀⠀yes ⠀⠀⠀⠀ye ⠀⠀⠀⠀semos ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀soz ⠀⠀⠀⠀son
Imperfect ⠀⠀⠀⠀yera ⠀⠀⠀⠀yeras ⠀⠀⠀⠀yera ⠀⠀⠀⠀yéranos ⠀⠀⠀⠀yeraz ⠀⠀⠀⠀yeran
⠀Simple past⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀estié ⠀⠀⠀⠀estiés ⠀⠀⠀⠀estió ⠀⠀⠀⠀estiemos ⠀⠀⠀⠀estiez ⠀⠀⠀⠀estioron
Future ⠀⠀⠀⠀estaré ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarás ⠀⠀⠀⠀estará ⠀⠀⠀⠀estaremos ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarez ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarán
⠀Conditional⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarba ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarbas ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarba ⠀⠀⠀⠀estárbanos ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarbaz ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarban
Subjunctive yo él/ella nusatros/as busatros/as ellos/as
Present ⠀⠀⠀⠀siga ⠀⠀⠀⠀sigas ⠀⠀⠀⠀siga ⠀⠀⠀⠀sigamos ⠀⠀⠀⠀sigaz ⠀⠀⠀⠀sigan
Imperfect ⠀⠀⠀⠀estase ⠀⠀⠀⠀estases ⠀⠀⠀⠀estase ⠀⠀⠀⠀estásenos ⠀⠀⠀⠀estasez ⠀⠀⠀⠀estasen
Imperative yo él/ella nusatros/as busatros/as ellos/as
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀- ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀sé ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀- ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀- ⠀⠀⠀⠀sez ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀-


Catalan edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin stāre (to stand). Where the velar infix that is characteristic for the second conjugation comes from is unknown.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

estar (first-person singular present estic, first-person singular preterite estiguí, past participle estat)

  1. (transitive, copulative) to be; to currently be in a state or have a characteristic (Used to connect a noun to an adjective that describes a temporary state of being.)
    Estic cansada.I am tired.
  2. (auxiliary) forms the continuous aspect, together with a present participle
    Ja està dormint.He is already sleeping.
  3. (intransitive, +adverbial phrase) to be located (to be in a place)
    La Torre Eiffel està a París.The Eiffel Tower is in Paris.

Usage notes edit

  • This is one of two verbs that can be translated as to be, the other being ser/ésser. Ser/ésser indicates something that is inherent and not expected to change, whereas estar describes temporary qualities that apply only at a particular time. Ser/ésser relates to estar as essence relates to state, etymologically as well as semantically.

Conjugation edit

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Further reading edit

Franco-Provençal edit

Etymology edit

Derived from Latin stō, stāre (to stand, to be (location)).

Verb edit

estar

  1. to be (location, state, status)

Conjugation edit

Galician edit

Etymology edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese estar, from Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

estar (first-person singular present estou, first-person singular preterite estiven, past participle estado)
estar (first-person singular present estou, first-person singular preterite estivem or estive, past participle estado, reintegrationist norm)

  1. to be

Usage notes edit

Like Portuguese and Spanish, Galician has two different verbs that are usually translated to English as “to be”. The verb ser relates to essence, origin, or physical description. In contrast, the verb estar relates to current state or position.

Conjugation edit

See also edit

Further reading edit

Ladino edit

Etymology edit

From Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand).

Verb edit

estar (Latin spelling)

  1. to be, be present

Old Galician-Portuguese edit

Etymology edit

From Latin stāre (stand), from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂-.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

estar

  1. to be

Conjugation edit

Descendants edit

  • Galician: estar
  • Portuguese: estar

Old Irish edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

·estar

  1. third-person singular present subjunctive conjunct of ithid

Mutation edit

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
·estar unchanged ·n-estar
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Portuguese edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese estar, from Latin stāre (stand), from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂-. The stems estev- or estiv- found in some inflections likely come from Vulgar Latin *stēvī (perfect in -ēv-, used by some Latin second conjugation verbs), hypothetical perfect stem that displaced original Classical Latin perfect stitī. The present subjunctive stem estej- is by analogy with ser, sej- (which is from Latin sedēre).

Pronunciation edit

 
 

Verb edit

estar (first-person singular present estou, first-person singular preterite estive, past participle estado)

  1. (transitive with em or another locational preposition) to be (indicates location in space)
    Onde estás?Where are you?
    Estou em casa.I am at home.
  2. (copulative) to be (denotes a transient quality; a quality expected to change)
    O tempo estava frio.The weather was cold (at that moment).
    Estás louco?Are you crazy (right now)?
    A maçã está madura.The apple is ripe.
  3. (auxiliary with a and a verb in the infinitive (Portugal) or with the gerund (Brazil)) to be (forms the progressive aspect)
    Ela está cantando? / Ela está a cantar?Is she singing?
    Estavam trabalhando muito.They were working a lot.
    Estávamos a ler muito.We had been reading a lot.
    Estaremos a ler livros.We will be reading books.
  4. (transitive) to cost (to be worth a certain amount of money), especially of something whose price changes often
    Synonym: custar
    O quilo de maçã está a dois euros.
    A kilogram of apples costs two euros.
  5. to look (to give an appearance of being)
    Você está bonita.
    You look pretty.
  6. to stand
    Aqui estou.
    Here I stand.

Usage notes edit

Conjugation edit

Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:estar.

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

See also edit

Spanish edit

Alternative forms edit

  • tar (Latin America, nonstandard)

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Spanish estar, inherited from Latin stāre (stand), from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂- (compare English stand). The preterite's origin is unclear, most likely generalized from the preterite of haber (to have), hub- (note that b and v are pronounced identically; compare the same development in andar and tener). Cognate with English state.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /esˈtaɾ/ [esˈt̪aɾ]
  • Rhymes: -aɾ
  • Syllabification: es‧tar

Verb edit

estar (first-person singular present estoy, first-person singular preterite estuve, past participle estado)

  1. (intransitive) to be (have a temporary or permanent location in space)
    ¿Dónde estás?
    Where are you?
    Estoy en casa.
    I am at home.
  2. (intransitive) to be (denotes a copula, in a transient fashion)
    El tiempo estaba frío/caliente.
    The weather was cold/hot [back then].
    ¿Estás feliz?
    Are you happy [right now]?
  3. to be (auxiliary verb for the progressive/continuous aspect, preceding the gerund of the verb)
    Ella está cantando.
    She is singing.
  4. (intransitive) to be in a state (in a passive voice sense)
    Los vasos están rotos.
    The vases are broken. (In passive voice with estar, unlike haber, its past participle agrees with number and gender of the subject)
    Llegaron y vieron que el hotel estaba abandonado.
    They arrived and saw the hotel was abandoned.
  5. (reflexive, followed by adjective) to be, stay (denotes a copula, in a transient fashion)
    Estense callados y quietos.
    Stay quiet and not moving.
  6. (intransitive, with por) to be to be done, to be (still) undone:
    Esto todavía está por hacer.
    This is still to be done.
    Lo peor está por llegar.
    The worst part is yet to come.
  7. (intransitive) to be in a long-term state (in specific idioms)
    estar muerto/ato be dead
    estar casado/ato be married (can also be ser casado)
    estar chico/ato be short (colloquially)

Usage notes edit

Conjugation edit

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Descendants edit

See also edit

Further reading edit