From Middle English dẹ̄men (“to judge; to criticize, condemn; to impose a penalty on, sentence; to direct, order; to believe, think, deem”), from Old English dēman (“to decide, decree, deem”), from Proto-West Germanic *dōmijan, from Proto-Germanic *dōmijaną (“to judge, think”), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₁- (“to set, put”).
The word is cognate with Danish and Norwegian Bokmål dømme (“to judge”), Dutch doemen (“to condemn, foredoom”), North Frisian dema (“to judge, recognise”), Norwegian Nynorsk døma (“to judge”), Swedish döma (“to judge, sentence, condemn”). It is also related to doom.
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /diːm/
- (General American) IPA(key): /dim/
Audio (AU) (file)
- Rhymes: -iːm
deem (third-person singular simple present deems, present participle deeming, simple past and past participle deemed)
- (transitive, obsolete) To judge, to pass judgment on; to doom, to sentence.
- Synonym: judge
- 1872, George C[olwell] Oke, “The Synopsis of Offences, etc. within the Provisions of the 11 & 12 Vict. c. 43”, in The Magisterial Synopsis: A Practical Guide for Magistrates, Their Clerks, Attornies and Constables; […] In Two Volumes, volume I, 11th edition, London: Butterworths, […], →OCLC, page 380:
- [Section] 39. Being found by a constable on a highway, street, or public place, suspected of coming from land where he has been unlawfully in search or pursuit of game, and game or nets, &c. being found in his possession or in a cart, &c.,—the justices deeming the game unlawfully obtained from some land.
- (transitive, obsolete) To adjudge, to decree.
- Synonym: judge
- 1843, “Act No. VII. of 1843”, in East India. Acts Passed by the Honourable the President of the Council of India, and by the Right Honourable the Governor-General, for 1843; […] (Accounts and Papers; 328), [London]: Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be printed, […], published 28 May 1845, →OCLC, section XLIV, page 11:
- And it is hereby enacted, that in any zillah, in which the Governor in Council of Fort St. George deems it expedient to establish the zillah court, and the court or courts under subordinate judges or principal sudder ameens, at separate stations, it shall be competent to the said Governor in Council, by an Order in Council, to authorize the session judge to take cognizance of all criminal cases subject ordinarily to the jurisdiction of the subordinate courts, […]
- (transitive, obsolete) To dispense (justice); to administer (law).
- Synonym: judge
- (ditransitive) To hold in belief or estimation; to adjudge as a conclusion; to regard as being; to evaluate according to one's beliefs; to account.
- Synonyms: consider; see also Thesaurus:deem
- She deemed his efforts insufficient.
- 1874, “Types of Russian Character”, in Edmund Routledge, editor, Routledge’s Every Boy’s Annual, London; New York, N.Y.: George Routledge & Sons, →OCLC, page 254:
- To this sect belong also the Skakounui, or Jumpers. […] They refuse to take an oath, and will not bear arms, deeming it sinful to shed human blood.
- (transitive, intransitive) To think, judge, or have or hold as an opinion; to decide or believe on consideration; to suppose.
- 1593, Gabriel Harvey, Pierces Supererogation: Or A New Prayse of the Old Asse, London: […] Iohn Wolfe, →OCLC; republished as John Payne Collier, editor, Pierces Supererogation: Or A New Prayse of the Old Asse. A Preparative to Certaine Larger Discourses, Intituled Nashes S. Fame (Miscellaneous Tracts. Temp. Eliz. & Jac. I; no. 8), [London: [s.n.], 1870], →OCLC, page 41:
- It may ſeeme a rude diſpoſition that ſorteth not with the quality of the age; and pollicy deemeth that vertue a vice, that modeſty, ſimplicity, that reſolotenes, diſſolutenes, that conformeth not it ſelfe with a ſupple and deft correſpondence to the preſent time.
- 1660, Samuel Fisher, “The Fourth Apologeticall, and Expostulatory Exercitation”, in Rusticus ad Academicos in Exercitationibus Expostulatoriis, Apologeticis Quatuor: The Rustick’s Alarm to the Rabbies, […], London: Printed for Robert Wilson, →OCLC, chapter VI, page 220:
- [T]herefore had Abel and his works acceptance, when Cain and his had none, becauſe he was righteous, not ſo eſteemed of God while he was not ſo indeed (as T[homas] D[anson] deems) who becauſe he ſo does, deems that God (as himſelf) deems thoſe and theirs to be good and righteous, […]
- 1665, Kenelme Digby [i.e., Kenelm Digby], “[The Second Treatise: Declaring the Nature and Operations of Mans Soule.] Of Thinking and Knowing”, in Two Treatises: In the One of which, the Nature of Bodies; in the Other, the Nature of Mans Soule is Looked into: In Way of Discovery of the Immortality of Reasonable Soules, London: Printed for Iohn Williams, […], →OCLC, page 18:
- [I]f a man doe really deem the weather to be cold, or that his body is diſtempered, he putteth on warmer cloathes, or taketh phyſick: although peradventure he is miſtaken in both: for his deeming them to be ſo, maketh him demeane himſelfe in ſuch ſort, as if really they were ſo.
- 1678, John Bunyan, The Pilgrim’s Progress from This World, to That which is to Come: […], London: […] Nath[aniel] Ponder […], →OCLC; reprinted in The Pilgrim’s Progress (The Noel Douglas Replicas), London: Noel Douglas, […], 1928, →OCLC, pages 139–140:
- So Chriſtian came up with him again, and ſaid, Sir, you talk as if you knew ſomething more than all the World doth; and if I take not my mark amiſs, I deem I have half a gueſs of you: Is not your name Mr. By-ends of Fair-ſpeech?
- 1720, Benjamin Marten, “Of the Great Number of Medicines and Various Methods of Cure Recommended for Consumptions, with the Different Opinions of Authors Concerning Them, &c.”, in A New Theory of Consumptions: More Especially of a Phthisis, or Consumption of the Lungs. […], London: Printed for R. Knaplock, […]; A. Bell, […]; J. Hooke, […], and C. King, […], →OCLC, pages 101–102:
- [T]hoſe [remedies] that have obtain'd the Name of Antiſcorbutick, Antiſcrophulous, Traumatick, Vulnerary or Healing Medicines, and ſuch as are deem'd Sweeteners of the Blood, and Correctors of Acrimony, […] have all in their turns been held in high Eſteem; […] Some think the Cure of a Phthiſis is to be compaſſed only by Alkalies; others by Acids; abundance of Phyſicians are of Opinion that no Good can be done in thi Diſeaſe without Opiates, which ſome deem very pernicious; […]
- 1847, Ralph Waldo Emerson, “Threnody”, in Poems, London: Chapman, Brothers, 121, Newgate Street, →OCLC, page 195:
- And deemest thou as those who pore, / With aged eyes, short way before? / Think'st Beauty vanished from the coast / Of matter, and thy darling lost?
- 2020 July 29, Ian Prosser discusses with Paul Stephen, “Rail needs robust and strategic plans”, in Rail, page 42:
- For example, record-breaking rainfall in the UK made February 2020 the wettest February on record, while July 2019 was deemed to be the warmest month on record worldwide.
|present tense||past tense|
|2nd-person singular||deem, deemest†||deemed, deemedst†|
|3rd-person singular||deems, deemeth†||deemed|
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.
deem (plural deems)
- ^ “dẹ̄men, v.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 28 April 2018.
- ^ “deem”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
deem m (plural demen, diminutive deemke n)
- (Brabant) dumb person
- Maa ziet gij da dan ni, 't ligt veur ave neus, gij sen deem!
- (please add an English translation of this usage example)
From Old High German themu, demu, from Proto-Germanic *þammai.
deem m or n (unstressed dem)
|Luxembourgish definite articles|
|nom./acc.||deen (den)||déi (d')||dat (d')||déi (d')|
|dat.||deem (dem)||där (der)||deem (dem)||deen (den)|
- inflection of dar:
deem (plural deems)