See also: Zima, zimą, ziḿă, and zim’ă

Czech

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Czech Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia cs

Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Czech zima, from Proto-Slavic *zima, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *źeimā́ˀ, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰéyōm.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈzɪma]
  • Audio:(file)

Noun

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zima f

  1. winter
    Antonym: léto
  2. cold
    Synonyms: chlad, chladno, kosa, kláda, klendra
    Antonym: teplo

Declension

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Derived terms

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See also

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Seasons in Czech · roční období (layout · text) · category
jaro (spring) léto (summer) podzim (autumn) zima (winter)

Further reading

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  • zima in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • zima in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
  • zima in Internetová jazyková příručka

Kituba

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Verb

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zima

  1. to extinguish

Old Czech

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *zima.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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zima f

  1. winter (season)
    ziměin winter
  2. cold

Declension

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Descendants

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  • Czech: zima

See also

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Seasons in Old Czech · roční časové (layout · text) · category
vesno, jěř (spring) léto (summer) podjesen, podzim (autumn) zima (winter)

Further reading

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Polish

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Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish zima, from Proto-Slavic *zima, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *źeimā́ˀ, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰéyōm.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈʑi.ma/
  • Audio:(file)
  • Rhymes: -ima
  • Syllabification: zi‧ma

Noun

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zima f

  1. winter

Declension

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Derived terms

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See also

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Seasons in Polish · pory roku (layout · text) · category
wiosna (spring) lato (summer) jesień (autumn) zima (winter)

References

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Further reading

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  • zima in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • zima in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Serbo-Croatian

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Serbo-Croatian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sh

Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *zima, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *źeimā́ˀ, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰéyōm.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /zǐːma/
  • Hyphenation: zi‧ma

Noun

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zíma f (Cyrillic spelling зи́ма)

  1. winter
  2. cold, coldness (of weather or temperature)

Declension

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Derived terms

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See also

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Seasons in Serbo-Croatian · godišnja doba / годишња доба (layout · text) · category
spring:
proleće, proljeće
пролеће, прољеће
summer:
leto, ljeto
лето, љето
autumn:
jesen
јесен
winter:
zima
зима

References

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  • zima” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Slovak

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Slovak Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sk

Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *zima.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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zima f (genitive singular zimy, nominative plural zimy, genitive plural zím, declension pattern of žena)

  1. winter
  2. very cold weather (regardless of the season)

Declension

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Derived terms

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See also

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Further reading

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  • zima”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

Slovene

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Slovene Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sl

Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *zima, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *źeimā́ˀ, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰéyōm.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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zíma f

  1. winter

Inflection

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The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Feminine, a-stem
nom. sing. zíma
gen. sing. zíme
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
zíma zími zíme
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
zíme zím zím
dative
(dajȃlnik)
zími zímama zímam
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
zímo zími zíme
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
zími zímah zímah
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
zímo zímama zímami

See also

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Seasons in Slovene · létni čàs (layout · text) · category
pomlád (spring) polétje (summer) jesén (autumn) zíma (winter)

Further reading

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  • zima”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran
  • zima”, in Termania, Amebis
  • See also the general references

Swahili

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Bantu [Term?].

Adjective

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-zima (declinable)

  1. whole; entire; full
  2. mature; fully grown
  3. (in greetings) well
    U mzimaAre you well?
Declension
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Etymology 2

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Verb

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-zima (infinitive kuzima)

  1. to turn off, extinguish, quell
Conjugation
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Conjugation of -zima
Positive present -nazima
Subjunctive -zime
Negative -zimi
Imperative singular zima
Infinitives
Positive kuzima
Negative kutozima
Imperatives
Singular zima
Plural zimeni
Tensed forms
Habitual huzima
Positive past positive subject concord + -lizima
Negative past negative subject concord + -kuzima
Positive present (positive subject concord + -nazima)
Singular Plural
1st person ninazima/nazima tunazima
2nd person unazima mnazima
3rd person m-wa(I/II) anazima wanazima
other classes positive subject concord + -nazima
Negative present (negative subject concord + -zimi)
Singular Plural
1st person sizimi hatuzimi
2nd person huzimi hamzimi
3rd person m-wa(I/II) hazimi hawazimi
other classes negative subject concord + -zimi
Positive future positive subject concord + -tazima
Negative future negative subject concord + -tazima
Positive subjunctive (positive subject concord + -zime)
Singular Plural
1st person nizime tuzime
2nd person uzime mzime
3rd person m-wa(I/II) azime wazime
other classes positive subject concord + -zime
Negative subjunctive positive subject concord + -sizime
Positive present conditional positive subject concord + -ngezima
Negative present conditional positive subject concord + -singezima
Positive past conditional positive subject concord + -ngalizima
Negative past conditional positive subject concord + -singalizima
Gnomic (positive subject concord + -azima)
Singular Plural
1st person nazima twazima
2nd person wazima mwazima
3rd person m-wa(I/II) azima wazima
m-mi(III/IV) wazima yazima
ji-ma(V/VI) lazima yazima
ki-vi(VII/VIII) chazima vyazima
n(IX/X) yazima zazima
u(XI) wazima see n(X) or ma(VI) class
ku(XV/XVII) kwazima
pa(XVI) pazima
mu(XVIII) mwazima
Perfect positive subject concord + -mezima
"Already" positive subject concord + -meshazima
"Not yet" negative subject concord + -jazima
"If/When" positive subject concord + -kizima
"If not" positive subject concord + -sipozima
Consecutive kazima / positive subject concord + -kazima
Consecutive subjunctive positive subject concord + -kazime
Object concord (indicative positive)
Singular Plural
1st person -nizima -tuzima
2nd person -kuzima -wazima/-kuzimeni/-wazimeni
3rd person m-wa(I/II) -mzima -wazima
m-mi(III/IV) -uzima -izima
ji-ma(V/VI) -lizima -yazima
ki-vi(VII/VIII) -kizima -vizima
n(IX/X) -izima -zizima
u(XI) -uzima see n(X) or ma(VI) class
ku(XV/XVII) -kuzima
pa(XVI) -pazima
mu(XVIII) -muzima
Reflexive -jizima
Relative forms
General positive (positive subject concord + (object concord) + -zima- + relative marker)
Singular Plural
m-wa(I/II) -zimaye -zimao
m-mi(III/IV) -zimao -zimayo
ji-ma(V/VI) -zimalo -zimayo
ki-vi(VII/VIII) -zimacho -zimavyo
n(IX/X) -zimayo -zimazo
u(XI) -zimao see n(X) or ma(VI) class
ku(XV/XVII) -zimako
pa(XVI) -zimapo
mu(XVIII) -zimamo
Other forms (subject concord + tense marker + relative marker + (object concord) + -zima)
Singular Plural
m-wa(I/II) -yezima -ozima
m-mi(III/IV) -ozima -yozima
ji-ma(V/VI) -lozima -yozima
ki-vi(VII/VIII) -chozima -vyozima
n(IX/X) -yozima -zozima
u(XI) -ozima see n(X) or ma(VI) class
ku(XV/XVII) -kozima
pa(XVI) -pozima
mu(XVIII) -mozima
Some forms not commonly seen in modern Standard Swahili are absent from the table. See Appendix:Swahili verbs for more information.
Derived terms
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