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See also:
U+754C, 界
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-754C

[U+754B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+754D]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order (Japan)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 102, +4, 9 strokes, cangjie input 田人中中 (WOLL), four-corner 46128, composition(G) or ⿳丿(HTJKV))

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 760, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21775
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1170, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2534, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+754C

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡaːds, *ɡeːds
*kreːds
*kreːds
*kreːds
*kreːds
*kreːds
*kreːds
*kreːds, *kreːd, *ɡraːd
*kreːds
*kreːds
*kreːds, *ɡreːds
*ɡreːds
*ɡaːd, *kreːd
*kreːd
*kreːd
*kreːd

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kreːds): semantic  (field) + phonetic  (OC *kreːds).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • kài - literary;
  • kè/kòe - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (33)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠɛiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚæiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɐiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kəɨjH/
Li
Rong
/kɛiH/
Wang
Li
/kɐiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kăiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiè
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiè
Middle
Chinese
‹ kɛjH ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁr[e][t]-s/
English boundary

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6524
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kreːds/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. boundary
      ―  jìngjiè  ―  boundary; state
  2. domain; realm; zone; area
  3. circle; world; industry
    音樂 / 音乐  ―  yīnyuèjiè  ―  the music world; music circles
  4. (taxonomy) kingdom

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. world
  2. border

ReadingsEdit

(Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
かい
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC kˠɛiH, “boundary”).

In Buddhist contexts, derived from the Middle Chinese term used as a translation of Sanskrit धातु (dhātu, layer, stratum).[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かい, rōmaji kai)

  1. boundary
  2. a bounded area or region
  3. a bounded group of people, a society, a world as a social grouping, such as business, celebrities, or finance
    Used both as a standalone noun, and in compounds. Use in compounds is more common in this sense.
    自然 (しぜん) (かい)自然 (しぜん) (かい)
    shizen no kai, shizenkai
    the natural world
    美術界 (びじゅつかい)
    bijutsukai
    the art world
  4. the border edge of a thing
  5. (Buddhism) the category of a thing
  6. (Buddhism) the world or realm of a thing
  7. lines drawn between the lines of a text, as on lined writing paper
  8. lines drawn to lay out a draft of a piece of artwork: a sketch
  9. (biology, taxonomy) a kingdom
  10. (geology) a stratum corresponding to a geologic age
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
さかい
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

/sakapi//sakaɸi//sakahi//sakai/

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of obsolete verb 境う (sakau, to divide, to form a boundary between things).[1][2]

Some sources[1] further derive the verb as Old Japanese element (saka, division, border, boundary) + auxiliary verb (fu) indicating repetition or ongoing state. However, given the semantics, this could also be analyzed as the repetitive or ongoing aspect of Old Japanese-derived verb saku with an underlying meaning of “to split apart, to separate, to put distance between”, spelled variously as 割く, 裂く, 離く, or 放く, and cognate with 咲く (saku, to bloom, from the idea of the blooms splitting open), 栄える (sakaeru, to prosper, extended from the bloom sense), 盛ん (sakan, prospering, fluorishing).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana さかい, rōmaji sakai)

  1. border, boundary, limits
Usage notesEdit

More commonly spelled . Derived terms primarily use that spelling, so see that entry for more details.

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(gye) (hangeul , revised gye, McCune–Reischauer kye, Yale kyey)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(giới)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.