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U+9B42, 魂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9B42

[U+9B41]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9B43]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 194, +4, 14 strokes, cangjie input 一戈竹戈 (MIHI), four-corner 16713, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1461, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45787
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1994, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4428, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+9B42

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɢuːn
*ɢuːn, *ɢun
*ɢuːn, *ɢuns
*ɢun
*ŋunʔ
*ɢun
*ɢun
*ɢun
*ɢun
*ɢun
*ɢun
*ɢun
*ɢun
*ɢun
*ɢun
*ɢunʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢuːn): phonetic  (OC *ɢun) + semantic .

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (55)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuən/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuon/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuən/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwən/
Li
Rong
/ɣuən/
Wang
Li
/ɣuən/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuən/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hún
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hún
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwon ›
Old
Chinese
/*[m.]qʷˁə[n]/
English spiritual soul

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 16353
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢuːn/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (religion, folklore) the hun, the soul which goes to heaven, as opposed to the (), which goes down to the earth with the body at death.
  2. soul; spirit
  3. mood
  4. the lofty spirit of a nation or people

SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. soul, spirit
  2. vigor/vigour, willpower

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
たましい
Grade: S
kun’yomi

⟨tamasipi1 → */tamasipʲi//tamaɕifi//tamaɕiwi//tamaɕiː/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *tamasipi.

Compound of (tama, soul, spirit, see below) and an uncertain shii, possibly 強ひ (shihi → shii), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of classical verb 強ふ (shifu → shiu), modern 強いる (shiiru, to force, compel). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana たましい, rōmaji tamashii, historical hiragana たましひ)

  1. (religion, folklore) a soul, spirit
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem 3767), text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       (たましひ) (あした) (ゆふべ)にたまふれど () (むね) (いた) (こひ) (しげ)きに [Modern spelling]
      tamashii wa ashita-yūbe ni tamafuredo aga mune itashi koi no shigeki ni
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonyms: ゼーレ (zēre); ソウル, ソール (sōru); 霊魂 (reikon)
  2. mind, spirit, vigor/vigour, willpower
    Synonyms: ガイスト (gaisuto), 気力 (kiryoku), (kokoro), 心魂 (kokorodama), 精神 (seishin)
  3. (figuratively) spirit (manner or style of something, enthusiasm)
  4. (figuratively, by extension) attitude, readiness
    Synonym: 気構え (kigamae)
  5. discretion, judgement, prudence
    Synonyms: 才略 (sairyaku), 思慮 (shiryo), 分別 (funbetsu)
  6. character, genius, talent, wisdom
    Synonyms: 素質 (soshitsu), 天分 (tenbun), 才気 (saiki)
  7. (from a warrior's "spirit") a katana (single-edged Japanese sword)
    Synonym: (katana)
Derived termsEdit
IdiomsEdit
ProverbsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
たま
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *tama.

Thought to be cognate with (tama, jewel).[1]

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana たま, rōmaji tama, historical hiragana たま)

  1. a soul, spirit
    • 905, Kokin Wakashū (book 10, poem 448)
      空蟬 (うつせみ)のからは ()ごとにとどむれどたまのゆくへを ()ぬぞかなしき
      utsusemi no kara-wa-ki-goto ni todomuredo tama no yukue no minu zo kanashiki
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonym: 霊魂 (reikon)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
こん
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦuən).

Compare modern Mandarin (hún)

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana こん, rōmaji kon)

  1. mind, spirit, will
    Synonyms: (kokoro), 精神 (seishin)
  2. a soul, spirit
    Synonym: 霊魂 (reikon)
  3. hun: yang energy or spirit
    Antonym: (haku)
    Hypernym: 魂魄 (konpaku)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
こころ
Grade: S
Irregular

From (kokoro, heart, mind, spirit).

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana こころ, rōmaji Kokoro)

  1. a female given name

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(hon) (hangeul , revised hon, McCune–Reischauer hon, Yale hon)

  1. soul, spirit

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hồn, hun, hùn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.