U+9B44, 魄
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9B44

[U+9B43]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9B45]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(Kangxi radical 194, +5, 15 strokes, cangjie input 竹日竹山戈 (HAHUI), four-corner 26613, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1461, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45810
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1995, character 22
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4431, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+9B44

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
   

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan; cognate with Tibetan བླ (bla) and Burmese လိပ်ပြာ (lippra).

Related to (OC *braːɡ, “white”) (Schuessler, 2007).

"illuminated part of the moon"
Wang (1923) in 《生霸死霸考》 supports the definition by examining textual traditions of the Chinese classics and archaeological evidences from the Western Zhou era (c. 11th–8th centuries BCE). Bronze script texts from the era commonly use the form (OC *praːɡs).
"dark part of the moon"
Chiefly found in some old dictionaries based on another textual tradition, traced by Wang (1923) to the calendrical innovations of Liu Xin and later Confucian "pseudepigraphy".

Pronunciation 1Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (2)
Final () (113)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pʰˠæk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/pʰᵚak̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/pʰak̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pʰaɨjk̚/
Li
Rong
/pʰɐk̚/
Wang
Li
/pʰɐk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pʰɐk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
po
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
pak1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phæk ›
Old
Chinese
/*pʰˁrak/
English bodily form or soul

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 201
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pʰraːɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (religion, folklore) the po, the soul which does not leave the body after death, compared to (hún) which does.
  2. soul; spirit
  3. vigor
  4. body
  5. (archaic, Chinese astronomy) bright, illuminated part of the moon
  6. (obsolete, retroactively proscribed) dark part of the moon
See alsoEdit

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (はく) (haku)
  • Korean: (, baek)
  • Vietnamese: phách ()

Pronunciation 2Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. sound of falling
  2. Used in 魄莫.
  3. Used in 旁魄.

Pronunciation 3Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (6)
Final () (103)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰɑk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰɑk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰak̚/
Li
Rong
/tʰɑk̚/
Wang
Li
/tʰɑk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰɑk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tuo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
tok3
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 191
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tʰaːɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 落魄 (luòtuò), alternative form of 落拓 (luòtuò).

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. a soul

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
たま
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

Perhaps from (tama, jewel)

NounEdit

(たま) (tama

  1. Alternative spelling of (soul)

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
はく
Hyōgaiji
on’yomi
 魂魄 on Japanese Wikipedia

From Middle Chinese (phæk).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(はく) (haku

  1. (religion, folklore) po (haku), the soul which does not leave the body after death, compared to hun (kon) which does.
    • 2004 June 15, Takahashi, Rumiko, “(だい)() ()(さく) [Chapter 1: Prototypes]”, in (いぬ)()(しゃ) [Inuyasha], volume 35 (fiction), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 8:
      (こん)(こころ)…つまり(たましい)だ。そして(はく)(からだ)(うご)かす(ちから)
      Kon wa kokoro… Tsumari tamashī da. Soshite haku wa karada o ugokasu chikara…
      Kon is the heart… in other words, the soul. And haku is the force that moves the body…
    • 2004 June 15, Takahashi, Rumiko, “(だい)() ()(さく) [Chapter 1: Prototypes]”, in (いぬ)()(しゃ) [Inuyasha], volume 35 (fiction), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 8:
      (はく)ってやつがあれば、(たましい)のない()(がい)でも(うご)くんだな。
      Haku tte yatsu ga areba, tamashī no nai shigai de mo ugoku n da na.
      As long as it has this haku thing, even a soulless corpse can move.
Derived termsEdit

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC pʰˠæk̚).

Historical readings

PronunciationEdit

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (neok baek))

  1. Hanja form? of (soul; spirit).

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC tʰɑk̚).

Historical readings

PronunciationEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 영락할 (yeongnakhal tak))

  1. Hanja form? of (to wither and fall).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: phách

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.