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RussianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

ParticleEdit

-ка (-ka)

  1. now, just (usually appended to an imperative verb to express a pressing request)
    Иди́те-ка сюда́Idíte-ka sjudáJust come here!
    Послу́шай-ка, па́реньPoslúšaj-ka, párenʹNow listen, lad!

Etymology 2Edit

From a conflation of two suffixes Proto-Slavic *-ьka and Proto-Slavic *-ъka. The former always came to be used after velars (hence the occurrence of the Slavic first palatalization), while the latter always came to be used after -л- (hence the lack of palatalization of -л- before -ка).

SuffixEdit

-ка (-ka)

  1. (added to (normally feminine) nouns, forms diminutives, sometimes with a further change in meaning)
    жи́ла (žíla, vein) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎жи́лка (žílka, veinlet, small vein)
    моги́ла (mogíla, grave) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎моги́лка (mogílka, small grave)
    бума́га (bumága, paper, document) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎бума́жка (bumážka, small document)
    ку́кла (kúkla, doll, puppet) (genitive plural ку́кол (kúkol)) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎ку́колка (kúkolka, small doll, pupa)
    пчела́ (pčelá, bee) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎пчёлка (pčólka, small bee)
    вода́ (vodá, water) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎во́дка (vódka, vodka) (originally, "something diluted with water")
  2. (added to nouns denoting classes of people, forms the feminine equivalent; replaces the suffix -ец (-ec) if present)
    бисексуа́л (bisɛksuál, bisexual) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎бисексуа́лка (bisɛksuálka, female bisexual)
    ленингра́дец (leningrádec, resident of Leningrad) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎ленингра́дка (leningrádka, female resident of Leningrad)
  3. (added to verbs, forms abstract nouns or nouns indicating the result of the action)
    закали́ть (zakalítʹ, to temper, to harden) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎зака́лка (zakálka, tempering, hardening; training (for endurance))
    мочи́ть (močítʹ, to soak, to wet) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎мо́чка (móčka, soaking, wetting)
    отде́лать (otdélatʹ, to finish, to trim) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎отде́лка (otdélka, finishing, trimming; finish, trim)
    подде́лать (poddélatʹ, to counterfeit, to fake) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎подде́лка (poddélka, counterfeit, imitation, fake, forgery)
    блоки́ровать (blokírovatʹ, to block) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎блокиро́вка (blokiróvka, blocking, blockage)
  4. (added to verbs, forms instruments or tools)
    заколо́ть (zakolótʹ, to attach with a pin) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎зако́лка (zakólka, barrette)
    пили́ть (pilítʹ, to saw) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎пи́лка (pílka, fretsaw; fingernail file)
  5. (added to adjectives or numerals, forms colloquial nouns with the meaning of a carrier of the adjective's or numeral's properties)
    минера́льный (minerálʹnyj, mineral (relational)) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎минера́лка (minerálka, mineral water (colloquial); mineral fertilizer (colloquial))
    зени́тный (zenítnyj, zenith (relational); anti-aircraft (relational)) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎зени́тка (zenítka, anti-aircraft gun (colloquial))
    полтора́ (poltorá, one and a half) (oblique cases полу́тора (polútora)) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎полу́торка (polútorka, small apartment consisting of a medium-sized room and a small room (colloquial); GAZ-AA-brand truck with a 1.5-ton payload (colloquial))
Usage notesEdit

Note the following properties:

DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit


Related termsEdit
See alsoEdit

Serbo-CroatianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *-ъka.

SuffixEdit

-ка (Latin spelling -ka)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a feminine noun, denoting a part, profession, feature, membership, origin, social status, complexion, proper name, abstract noun or animal's name.

See alsoEdit