Bulgarian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ъka and Proto-Slavic *-ьka (the latter causes palatalization of preceding velars).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ka]
  • Audio:(file)
  • This suffix is never stressed.

Suffix

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-ка (-ka) (diminutive -чица)

  1. Forms diminutives of feminine nouns, including personal names:
    брой (broj) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎бро́йка (brójka)
    жи́ца (žíca) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎жи́чка (žíčka)
    кни́га (kníga) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎кни́жка (knížka)
    пи́та (píta) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎пи́тка (pítka)
    Снежа́на (Snežána) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎Снежа́нка (Snežánka)
    Мари́я (Maríja) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎Мари́йка (Maríjka)
  2. Forms feminine nouns (including personal names) from adjectives:
    бял (bjal) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎бе́лка (bélka)
    горчи́в (gorčív) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎горчи́вка (gorčívka)
    лис (lis) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎ли́ска (líska)
    ме́ден (méden) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎ме́денка (médenka)
    здрав (zdrav) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎Здра́вка (Zdrávka)
    рад (rad) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎Ра́дка (Rádka)
  3. Forms resultant or abstract nouns from verbs:
    гле́дам (glédam) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎гле́дка (glédka)
    ме́ря (mérja) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎мя́рка (mjárka)
    плета́ (pletá) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎пле́тка (plétka)
    стъ́пя (stǎ́pja) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎стъ́пка (stǎ́pka)
  4. Forms instrumental nouns from verbs:
    гре́я (gréja) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎гре́йка (gréjka)
    държа́ (dǎržá) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎дръ́жка (drǎ́žka)
    люле́я (ljuléja) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎лю́лка (ljúlka)
    цедя́ (cedjá) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎це́дка (cédka)
  5. Forms agent nouns from verbs or participles:
    доя́ (dojá) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎до́йка (dójka)
    ква́кам (kvákam) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎ква́чка (kváčka)
    роди́ла (rodíla) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎роди́лка (rodílka)
    хубаве́ла (hubavéla) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎хубаве́лка (hubavélka)
  6. Forms feminine counter-parts to masculine agent nouns:
    друг (drug) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎дру́жка (drúžka)
    глупа́к (glupák) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎глупа́чка (glupáčka)
    жетва́р (žetvár) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎жетва́рка (žetvárka)
    селя́нин (seljánin) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎селя́нка (seljánka) (nouns in -анин/-янин lose the ending -ин)
    съсе́д (sǎséd) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎съсе́дка (sǎsédka)
    учи́тел (učítel) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎учи́телка (učítelka)
  7. Forms secondary animal names from earlier root-athematic forms (which often have become obsolete):
    въш (vǎš) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎въ́шка (vǎ́ška)
    гъс (gǎs) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎гъска (gǎska)
    кот (kot) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎ко́тка (kótka)
    миш (miš) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎ми́шка (míška)
  8. Creates emphatic forms of certain temporal adverbs.
    днес (dnes) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎дне́ска (dnéska)
    ноще́с (noštés) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎ноще́ска (noštéska)
    зимъ́с (zimǎ́s) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎зимъ́ска (zimǎ́ska)
    завча́с (zavčás) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎завча́ска (zavčáska)

Declension

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Derived terms

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Komi-Zyrian

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Etymology 1

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Possibly from Russian -ка (-ka).

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-ка (-ka)

  1. (unproductive) Forms nouns denoting in-law family members;
    ай (aj, father)айка (ajka, father-in-law)
    энь (, mother)энька (eńka, mother-in-law)
  2. (unproductive) Forms nouns with a broader meaning from kinship terms;
    зон (zon, son)зонка (zonka, boy)
    ныв (nyv, daughter)нывка (nyvka, girl)
  3. (archaic) Forms diminutives.
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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From Proto-Permic *kwo-.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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-ка (-ka)

  1. (in compounds) dwelling
Derived terms
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References

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  • Bubrikh, Dmitry V. (1949) Грамматика литературного коми языка [Grammar of the literary Komi language] (in Russian), Leningrad: Zhdanov Leningrad State University, page 61

Macedonian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ъka.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-ка (-kaf

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a feminine noun, denoting a part, profession, feature, membership, origin, social status, complexion, proper name, abstract noun or animal's name.
  2. Appended to feminine nouns creates diminutive forms.

Derived terms

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Russian

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Etymology 1

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Particle

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-ка (-ka)

  1. now, just (usually appended to an imperative verb to express a pressing request)
    Иди́те-ка сюда́Idíte-ka sjudáJust come here!
    Послу́шай-ка, па́реньPoslúšaj-ka, párenʹNow listen, lad!
Descendants
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  • Solombala English: -ка (-ka)
  • Ingrian: -k

Etymology 2

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From a conflation of two suffixes Proto-Slavic *-ьka and Proto-Slavic *-ъka. The former always came to be used after velars (hence the occurrence of the Slavic first palatalization), while the latter always came to be used after -л- (hence the lack of palatalization of -л- before -ка).

Suffix

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-ка (-ka)

  1. (added to (normally feminine) nouns, forms diminutives, sometimes with a further change in meaning)
    жи́ла (žíla, vein) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎жи́лка (žílka, veinlet, small vein)
    моги́ла (mogíla, grave) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎моги́лка (mogílka, small grave)
    бума́га (bumága, paper, document) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎бума́жка (bumážka, small document)
    ку́кла (kúkla, doll, puppet) (genitive plural ку́кол (kúkol)) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎ку́колка (kúkolka, small doll, pupa)
    пчела́ (pčelá, bee) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎пчёлка (pčólka, small bee)
    вода́ (vodá, water) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎во́дка (vódka, vodka) (originally, "something diluted with water")
  2. (added to nouns denoting classes of people, forms the feminine equivalent; replaces the suffix -ец (-ec) if present)
    ленингра́дец (leningrádec, resident of Leningrad) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎ленингра́дка (leningrádka, female resident of Leningrad)
  3. (added to verbs, forms abstract nouns or nouns indicating the result of the action)
    закали́ть (zakalítʹ, to temper, to harden) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎зака́лка (zakálka, tempering, hardening; training (for endurance))
    мочи́ть (močítʹ, to soak, to wet) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎мо́чка (móčka, soaking, wetting)
    отде́лать (otdélatʹ, to finish, to trim) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎отде́лка (otdélka, finishing, trimming; finish, trim)
    подде́лать (poddélatʹ, to counterfeit, to fake) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎подде́лка (poddélka, counterfeit, imitation, fake, forgery)
    блоки́ровать (blokírovatʹ, to block) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎блокиро́вка (blokiróvka, blocking, blockage)
  4. (added to verbs, forms instruments or tools)
    заколо́ть (zakolótʹ, to attach with a pin) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎зако́лка (zakólka, barrette)
    пили́ть (pilítʹ, to saw) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎пи́лка (pílka, fretsaw; fingernail file)
  5. (added to adjectives or numerals, forms colloquial nouns with the meaning of a carrier of the adjective's or numeral's properties)
    минера́льный (minerálʹnyj, mineral (relational)) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎минера́лка (minerálka, mineral water (colloquial); mineral fertilizer (colloquial))
    зени́тный (zenítnyj, zenith (relational); anti-aircraft (relational)) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎зени́тка (zenítka, anti-aircraft gun (colloquial))
    полтора́ (poltorá, one and a half) (oblique cases полу́тора (polútora)) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎полу́торка (polútorka, small apartment consisting of a medium-sized room and a small room (colloquial); GAZ-AA-brand truck with a 1.5-ton payload (colloquial))
    запрещённый (zapreščónnyj, forbidden) + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎запрещёнка (zapreščónka, something forbidden (colloquial))
Usage notes
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• When "Ka" is used in the end of someone's name (for example: Ava-shka"), it's a way of saying cutie and it shows endearment.

Note the following properties:

Declension
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Derived terms
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See also
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Serbo-Croatian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ъka.

Suffix

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-ка (Latin spelling -ka)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a feminine noun, denoting a part, profession, feature, membership, origin, social status, complexion, proper name, abstract noun or animal's name.

See also

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Solombala English

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Etymology

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Inherited from Russian -ка (-ka).

Suffix

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-ка (-ka)

  1. Forms colloquial adverbs.
    English much + ‎-ка (-ka) → ‎мачка (mačka, much)

Derived terms

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References

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  • Broch, Ingvild (1996) “Solombala-English in Archangel”, in Jahr, Ernst Håkon, Broch, Ingvild, editors, Language Contact in the Arctic: Northern Pidgins and Contact Languages (Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs (TiLSM); 88)‎[1], reprint edition, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, published 2011, →DOI, →ISBN, page 95 of 93–98