English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English -st; see -est.

Suffix edit

-st

  1. (archaic) Verb suffix for the second-person singular; Alternative form of -est

Etymology 2 edit

From the written form of first; see further etymology there.

Suffix edit

-st

  1. Marks ordinals written in digits when the final term of the spelled number is "first"
    the 21st century
Coordinate terms edit
Translations edit

Etymology 3 edit

-s +‎ -t of excrescent suffixes, with -s sometimes genitive.

Suffix edit

-st

  1. Excrescent suffix (adding sound but largely not changing the meaning).
    among + ‎-st → ‎amongst
    mid + ‎-st → ‎midst
    while + ‎-st → ‎whilst
Usage notes edit

When there is a shorter synonymous word (as in amongst/among), the form with -st is generally considered more formal, old-fashioned or affected in American English; whereas both are usually interchangeable in British English.

However, against is distinct in meaning from again, and midst is used in some contexts distinctly from mid.

Derived terms edit

Anagrams edit

Dutch edit

Etymology 1 edit

The suffix -st consists of two parts: a suffix -t (Proto-Indo-European *-ti) and an inserted -s-. The -s- is the result of a wrong segmentation of stem and suffix of a noun in cases where the stem of the noun ended with -s-. For example: a word like Dutch vorst (frost) could be interpreted as vors+t or as vor+st. This suffix existed already in Gothic (𐌰𐌽𐍃𐍄𐍃 (ansts), from 𐌿𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 (unnan)).[1]

Suffix edit

-st f (plural -sten)

  1. appended to the stem of a verb, this suffix yields a verbal noun; it is similar in function to the Dutch suffix -ing
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-st

  1. appended to an adjective this suffix forms the superlative
    vreemd (strange)vreemdst (strangest)

References edit

  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, →ISBN; § 167

Estonian edit

Suffix edit

-st

  1. partitive singular of -ne

Faroese edit

Etymology edit

Old Norse -sk, reduced form of the reflexive pronoun sik (whence Faroese seg).

Suffix edit

-st

  1. turns verbs into middle voice verbs

Derived terms edit

German edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle High German -est, from older -es through rebracketing in inverted forms like sizzes du → sizzestu → sizzest du (do you sit). Further from a merger of various Old High German conjugation suffixes, from Proto-Germanic, from Proto-Indo-European.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /st/ (standard)
  • IPA(key): /t/ (alternatively after -sch-)
  • IPA(key): /s/ (central-western Germany, chiefly informal)
  • IPA(key): /ʃ/ (south-western Germany and Switzerland, chiefly informal)

Suffix edit

-st

  1. Verb suffix for the second-person singular.
    lachen (to laugh) + ‎-st → ‎du lachst (you laugh, thou laughest)
    spielen (to play) + ‎-st → ‎du spielst (you play, thou playest)
Usage notes edit
  • In the present tense, the suffix becomes -t after s, ß, x, z: du schießt. After sch the spelling -t is standard only in Austria and South Tyrol, but the according pronunciation is common in most regions: du wäschst or wäscht.
  • The suffix becomes -est after d, t: du wartest. However, strong verbs with a vowel change have -st: du rätst. In obsolete usage the form -est was employed more freely also after other sounds.
  • In the strong past tense, -est is used after sibilants: du schossest. However, when the preceding vowel is long the form -t is possible alternatively: du aßest or aßt. After d, t the forms -est and -st are used in free variation: du rittest or rittst.

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle High German -est, from a merger of Old High German -ist and -ōst, from Proto-Germanic *-istaz and *-ōstaz.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-st

  1. Forms superlatives of adjectives and adverbs, sometimes triggering umlaut.
    klein (small) + ‎-st → ‎der kleinste (the smallest)
    lang (long) + ‎-st → ‎der längste (the longest)
    herzlich (cordially) + ‎-st → ‎am herzlichsten (most cordially)
    schleunig (speedily) + ‎-st → ‎schleunigst (straight away)
Usage notes edit
  • Attributive superlatives are declined like other adjectives. Predicative and adverbial superlatives generally take the particle am before them and are accordingly declined in the neuter dative singular. Some adjectives/adverbs also have basic forms in -st, but these are generally lexicalised.
  • The suffix becomes -est after sibilants s, sch, ß, x, z and after d, t when the adjective has final stress: der kürzeste, weiteste (though der kürzte, weitste may be heard colloquially and the same is standard in der größte). When the last vowel is /ə/ or unstressed /ɪ/ the short form is used: der geeignetste, sympathischste. After other unstressed vowels both ways are possible: der elendeste or elendste.
  • The forms -st and -est are also both possible after stressed final vowels and after consonant clusters (except those involving -r-). Thus: der neueste or neuste, der schlankeste or schlankste. The formal language prefers the long forms while the vernacular prefer the short ones.
Derived terms edit

Hungarian edit

Etymology edit

From -s (adjective-forming suffix) +‎ -t (locative suffix) in the Old Hungarian period. The adverbial sense of the locative suffix -t can be shown only in this -st morpheme.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-st

  1. (adverb-forming suffix) Forms an adverb of manner.

Usage notes edit

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ -st in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (‘Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)
  2. ^ Papp, Ferenc (ed.). A magyar nyelv szóvégmutató szótára (’Reverse-Alphabetized Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1994, p. 495.

Icelandic edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse -sk, reduced form of the reflexive pronoun sik (whence Icelandic sig).

Suffix edit

-st

  1. turns verbs into middle voice verbs

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Ingrian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Uncertain:

  • Possibly identical to the elative marker (see below), exhibiting an archaic function of the elative, found also in archaic or dialectal Finnish -sta.
  • Alternatively, from Proto-Finnic *-stik, reanalysed as identical to the elative marker after vowel reduction. In this case akin to Finnish -sti and Estonian -sti.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-st

  1. Used to form adverbs of manner from adjectives; -ly
Usage notes edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-sta. Cognates include Finnish -sta and Estonian -st.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-st

  1. Used to form the elative case; out of
Usage notes edit
Inflection edit
Possessive forms of -st
possessor singular plural
1st person -staan -stamme
2nd person -staas -stanne
3rd person -staa -stasse

References edit

  • V. I. Junus (1936) Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[1], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 43

Luxembourgish edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German -est, from Old High German -ist, -ōst, from Proto-Germanic *-istaz, *-ōstaz.

The expected form would be -scht as still in bescht (best) and meescht (most). The form -st is native in the northern third of Luxembourg and spread southwards, probably in part because the suffix is used in positions where /ʃ/ otherwise does not occur, and in part under the reinforcing influence of standard German.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-st

  1. Forms the superlative of adjectives; -est

Middle Dutch edit

Etymology edit

From Old Dutch -ist, -ost, from Proto-Germanic *-istaz, *-ōstaz.

Suffix edit

-st

  1. Forms the superlative of adjectives; -est

Derived terms edit

See Category:Middle Dutch adjective superlative forms.

Related terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Dutch: -st