See also: , , and
U+4E11, 丑
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E11

[U+4E10]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E12]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 1, +3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 弓土 (NG), four-corner 17105, composition or )

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean

Usage notes

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In Mainland China's Modern Chinese General Chinese Characters Stroke Order Standard (现代汉语通用字笔顺规范) and Xiandai Hanyu Guifan Cidian (现代汉语规范词典), the third stroke touches the first stroke (相接 (xiāngjiē)) but does not cross over it. In the Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong standards, the third stroke crosses over the first stroke (相交 (xiāngjiāo)).

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 77, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 23
  • Dae Jaweon: page 154, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 12, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+4E11

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – a hand.

Etymology 1

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

𠃠

Smith (2010) proposes that graphically depicts the claw-like "final, narrow phase of the moon"; he glosses it as "thing that pinches > pincer" and groups it into a word-family which is based on (OC *nuʔ, *tnuʔ, “twist, pinch”) and also includes

  • (OC *hnjɯwʔ, “hand”);
  • (OC *nuʔ, *n̥ʰuʔ) ~ (OC *n̥ʰɯwʔ, “manacle”), which equally uses (OC *n̥ʰuʔ) or (OC *hnjɯwʔ) as phonophoric, as noted by Unger (1995) and Sagart (1999);
  • (OC *nuʔ) ~ (OC *nuʔ, “grip handle”), with which Shuowen glosses (OC *n̥ʰuʔ);
  • (OC *nuʔ, *nus, “animal tracks”), suggested to mean "animals' fingers" by Sagart (1999).

Its association with the ox is from Austroasiatic (Mei, 1980; Norman, 1985; Ferlus, 2013); compare Proto-Vietic *c-luː (water buffalo), Proto-Mon-Khmer *krpiʔ ~ *krpiiw ~ *krpuʔ ~ *(kr)puh (buffalo), Proto-Austroasiatic *k.r.pu.y (buffalo).

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (10)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter trhjuwX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈʰɨuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈʰiuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶʰiəuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈʰuwX/
Li
Rong
/ȶʰiuX/
Wang
Li
/ȶʰĭəuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶʰi̯ə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chǒu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cau2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chǒu
Middle
Chinese
‹ trhjuwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[n̥]ruʔ/
English 2d earthly branch

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1526
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*n̥ʰuʔ/

Definitions

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  1. second of twelve earthly branches (地支)
    1. (Chinese zodiac) ox ()
  2. a surname
Coordinate terms
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Compounds

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Etymology 2

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trad.
simp. #

From (chǒu, “ugly”):

墨粉省文 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
墨粉省文 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
From: 1559, 徐渭 [Xu Wei], 《南詞敘錄》 [An Account of Southern Drama]
Yǐ mòfěn tú miàn, qí xíng shèn chǒu. Jīn xǐngwén wèi chǒu. [Pinyin]
His face is smeared with powdered ink, and his appearance is very (ugly). It is now graphically simplified to .

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. clown; comedian

Compounds

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Etymology 3

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“ugly; homely; hideous; shameful; disgraceful; etc.”).
(This character is the simplified form of ).
Notes:

Japanese

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Kanji

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(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. 1:00 AM to 3:00 AM.
  2. The ox, the second sign of Chinese zodiac.

Readings

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
うし
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

From (ushi, bull; cow; ox).

Pronunciation

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Proper noun

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(うし) (Ushi

  1. the Ox, the second of the twelve Earthly Branches
    Hypernyms: 十二支, 地支
    Coordinate terms: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
ちゅう
Jinmeiyō
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (trhjuwX).

Proper noun

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(ちゅう) (Chūちう (tiu)?

  1. the Ox, the second of the twelve Earthly Branches
    Hypernyms: 十二支, 地支
    Coordinate terms: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Korean

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Etymology 1

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From a corrupted or unorthodox reading. The original reading is (chu) based on Middle Chinese (MC trhjuwX).

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (so chuk))
(eumhun 둘째 지지 (duljjae jiji chuk))

  1. Hanja form? of (ox; second earthly branch).

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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From Middle Chinese (MC trhjuwX). Recorded as Middle Korean 튜ᇢ〯 (Yale: thyǔw) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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(eumhun 사람 이름 (saram ireum chu))

  1. Used in personal names.

References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: sửu, giấu, sấu, xấu, trửu, trẩu, chẩu, chửu

  1. chữ Hán form of Sửu (second of the twelve earthly branches).
    Hypernyms: 地支, 十二支
    Coordinate terms: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Compounds

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References

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