See also: [U+3038 HANGZHOU NUMERAL TEN], [U+31BA BOPOMOFO LETTER ZY], and 𬂛 [U+2C09B CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-2C09B]
U+5341, 十
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5341

[U+5340]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5342]
U+2F17, ⼗
KANGXI RADICAL TEN

[U+2F16]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F18]
U+3229, ㈩
PARENTHESIZED IDEOGRAPH TEN

[U+3228]
Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
[U+322A]
U+3289, ㊉
CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH TEN

[U+3288]
Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
[U+328A]
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
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Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 24, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input (J), four-corner 40000, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #24, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №54

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 155, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2695
  • Dae Jaweon: page 348, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 58, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+5341

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms financial

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
                 

Unlike , which was one horizontal stroke meaning one, was originally simply a vertical stroke. In later forms was added, forming a cross.

Possibly a pictogram (象形) for a needle, later written as (OC *kjum, *kjums), borrowed phonetically for (OC *ɡjub, “ten”).

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gip.

Pronunciation edit


Note: sī - used for "ten" in 20 to 99.
Note:
  • cha̍p - vernacular;
  • si̍p/se̍p - literary.
Note:
  • zab8 - Chaozhou, Shantou, Jieyang, Chaoyang, Raoping, Pontianak;
  • zag8 - Chenghai.
Note:
  • 3so - only used in 十五;
  • 7seq - only used in multiples of 10, e.g. 三十.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
Suzhou /zəʔ³/
Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /səp̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ʃïp̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐp̚²/
Nanning /sɐp̚²²/
Hong Kong /sɐp̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /sip̚⁵/
/t͡sap̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /sɛiʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /si⁵⁴/
/si⁴⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /t͡sap̚⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /tap̚³/
/tɔp̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (141)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter dzyip
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑiɪp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑip̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑjep̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑip̚/
Li
Rong
/ʑiəp̚/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭĕp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯əp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shí
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sap6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyip ›
Old
Chinese
/*t.[ɡ]əp/
English ten

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11452
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡjub/

Definitions edit

  1. ten
  2. (figurative) topmost; utmost
      ―  shífēn  ―  very
      ―  shíquánshíměi  ―  perfect

See also edit

Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 106 108 1012
Normal
(小寫小写)
, , , , ,
十千 (Malaysia, Singapore)
百萬百万,
(Philippines),
面桶 (Philippines)
亿 (Taiwan)
萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
Financial
(大寫大写)

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (じゅう) ()
  • Korean: 십(十) (sip)
  • Vietnamese: thập ()

Others:

Japanese edit

Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  9 10 11  > 
    Cardinal :

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
じゅう
Grade: 1
goon
Alternative spelling
(financial)
Kanji in this term
じっ
Grade: 1
kan’yōon

/ʑipʉ//ʑiɸu//ʑɨu//ʑuː//ʑiʔ//ʑi~̚/

From Middle Chinese (MC dzyip).

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

(じゅう) (じふ (zifu)?

  1. ten, 10
Derived terms edit
Idioms edit
Proverbs edit

Noun edit

(じゅう) (じふ (zifu)?

  1. a ten-year-old

Affix edit

(じゅう) or (じっ) ( or ji'じふ (zifu)?

  1. ten, 10
  2. tenth
  3. tenfold
  4. all, completely, perfect
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
とお
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

⟨to2wo⟩ → */təwo//towo//toː/

From Old Japanese, ultimately from Proto-Japonic *təwə.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

(とお) (とを (towo)?

  1. ten, 10
Derived terms edit
Idioms edit
Proverbs edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Shift from above.[2]

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

() (to

  1. ten, 10
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

⟨so1 → */sʷo//so/

From Old Japanese.

Used in compounds.

Affix edit

() (so

  1. multiplied by ten: tenfold
Derived terms edit

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
しい
Grade: 1
irregular

From Mandarin (shí).[3]

Numeral edit

(シー) (shī

  1. ten, 10
Derived terms edit

Coordinate terms edit

Japanese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Regular (れい) (rei)
(ゼロ) (zero)
(いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (よん) (yon)
() (shi)
() (go) (ろく) (roku) (なな) (nana)
(しち) (shichi)
(はち) (hachi) (きゅう) (kyū)
() (ku)
(じゅう) ()
Formal (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (じゅう) ()
90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
Regular (きゅう)(じゅう) (kyūjū) (ひゃく) (hyaku)
(いっ)(ぴゃく) (ippyaku)
(さん)(びゃく) (sanbyaku) (ろっ)(ぴゃく) (roppyaku) (はっ)(ぴゃく) (happyaku) (せん) (sen)
(いっ)(せん) (issen)
(さん)(ぜん) (sanzen) (はっ)(せん) (hassen) (いち)(まん) (ichiman) (いち)(おく) (ichioku)
Formal (いち)(まん) (ichiman)
1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
(いっ)(ちょう) (itchō) (はっ)(ちょう) (hatchō) (じゅっ)(ちょう) (jutchō) (いっ)(けい) (ikkei) (ろっ)(けい) (rokkei) (はっ)(けい) (hakkei) (じゅっ)(けい) (jukkei) (ひゃっ)(けい) (hyakkei)

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  3. ^ ”, in デジタル大辞泉 [Digital Daijisen]‎[2] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, updated roughly every four months

Korean edit

Korean numbers (edit)
100
 ←  1  ←  9 10 11  →  20  → 
1
    Native isol.: (yeol)
    Native attr.: (yeol)
    Sino-Korean: (sip)
    Hanja:
    Ordinal: 열째 (yeoljjae)

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC dzyip).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 씹〮 (Yale: ssíp)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] 열〮 (Yale: yél) 십〮 (Yale: síp)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (yeol sip))

  1. Hanja form? of (ten).
  2. Hanja form? of (whole; complete; perfect).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: thập ((thực)(nhập)(thiết))[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: thập[1][2][4]

  1. chữ Hán form of thập (ten).

Derived terms edit

References edit