Open main menu
See also:
U+4ECA, 今
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4ECA

[U+4EC9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4ECB]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
Mainland China
 
Stroke order
All regions except mainland China
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • In all regions except mainland China, the stroke between 𠆢 and for (and its derived characters) is written with a horizontal line.
  • In mainland China (based on Xin Zixing standardized form), the stroke between 𠆢 and for (and its derived characters) is written with a slanting dot instead.
  • In the historical Kangxi dictionary, the component below 𠆢 is written followed by 𠃍 instead.

Han characterEdit

(radical 9, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 人戈弓 (OIN) or 人一弓 (OMN), four-corner 80207, composition(G) or ⿱(HTJKV))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 91, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 358
  • Dae Jaweon: page 194, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 105, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4ECA

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #
variant forms 𫢉
⿱𠆢𬼽
⿱𠆢下

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰl'uːm
*l̥ʰuːmʔ
*l̥ʰuːms, *luːms
*qʰɯːm, *qlamʔ, *qlɯːms
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːmʔ, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*qɯːm, *qaːb
*qɯːm, *qrɯːms
*krɯːm
*qʰrɯːm, *kʰjam, *qʰlɯːm, *ɡrɯms
*qʰrɯːmʔ, *qʰram, *kʰlam, *kʰlamʔ, *qʰlɯːm
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*ɡram
*ɡram
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*nɯːms
*sɡɯm, *sɡrɯm
*sɢrɯm
*sɡrɯm
*sɡrɯm, *ɡrɯms
*sɡrɯm
*ɡjɯms
*krɯm
*krɯm
*krɯm
*kʰrɯm
*kʰrɯmʔ
*kʰrɯms
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm, *ŋɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm
*qʰrɯm, *qʰrɯmʔ
*qrɯm
*qrɯmʔ, *qrɯms
*qrɯms
*qrɯms
*ɡrɯn, *ɡɯn, *kɯŋ

Ideogram (指事) – in the mouth. The derivative (OC *ɡɯːm) refers to the original word.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • kin - colloquial;
  • kim - literary;
  • taⁿ - semantic (also written as (dàn) or (dāng)).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (140)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠiɪm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚim/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiem/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kjim/
    Li
    Rong
    /kjəm/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭĕm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯əm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jīn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jīn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kim ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]r[ə]m/
    English now

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6599
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*krɯm/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. now; at present; current
      Synonyms: 現在现在 (xiànzài)
        ―  jīntiān  ―  the current day; today
      以後 / 以后  ―  cóngjīnyǐhòu  ―  from now onwards.
    2. (literary, idiomatic) modern times
      Synonyms: 現代现代 (xiàndài)
      Antonyms: ()
      古往 / 古往  ―  gǔwǎngjīnlái  ―  from ancient to modern times.
    3. this
      Synonyms: (), (zhè)
        ―  jīn  ―  this time
      日事,日畢jīnrì shì, jīnrì bì(literally) Matters of this day ought to be completed by this day.
    4. (Classical Chinese) thus; promptly
      Synonyms: (), 立刻 (lìkè)
    5. (Classical Chinese) if
      Synonyms: (ruò), 假如 (jiǎrú)
    6. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 現在 (“now”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 當今, 此時, 方今, 今朝, 如今, 而今, , , 乃今
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 現在, 現今, 當今, 此時, 此刻, 如今, 而今,
    Mandarin Beijing 現在, 現而今
    Taiwan 現在
    Harbin 現在, 現如今, 現下, 現前兒
    Shenyang 現在
    Hailar 現在
    Ulanhot 現在
    Tongliao 現在
    Chifeng 現在
    Bayanhot 現在
    Jinan 現在, 如今, 現如今
    Muping 這時晚兒, 現時晚兒
    Luoyang 現在, 而今, 現如今
    Wanrong 人根, 移根
    Xi'an 致兒, 現在
    Xuzhou 眼今, 眼是, 腳底下, 現如今, 現而今 dated, 至而今 dated
    Yinchuan 現在
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi 眼下, 現在
    Wuhan 如今, 此如今
    Chengdu 這陣子, 這陣, 這下兒, 這個時候, 現在
    Guiyang 這下, 這崗, , 這歇, 這個時候
    Liuzhou 一寁
    Kunming 現在
    Yangzhou 現在
    Nanjing 現在
    Hefei 而今, 如今
    Cantonese Guangzhou 而家, 家下, 家陣
    Hong Kong 而家, 家下, 家陣
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 那下
    Taishan 該時
    Dongguan 家下, 那下
    Yangjiang 果陣
    Xinyi 個陣
    Nanning 而家, 而卡
    Wuzhou 家陣, 而家
    Kuala Lumpur 而家
    Gan Nanchang 現在, 如今
    Lichuan 該行崽
    Pingxiang 該仔, 如今
    Hakka Meixian 今下, 今仔下
    Xingning 如下
    Huidong (Daling) 今下
    Qujiang 如今
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 如今
    Changting 如今
    Pingyu
    Wuping 今下
    Liancheng 已久
    Ninghua 今子
    Yudu 如今
    Ruijin 如今, 今下子
    Shicheng 今底
    Shangyou 如今
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 這下, 現下, 今下, 今時, 今這下
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 這下, 現下, 今嘎, 今這下
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 這下, 現下, 今這下
    Dongshi (Dabu) 這下, 現下, 今這下, 這滿
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 這下, 現下, 今這下, 今下, 今時
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 這下, 現時, 今這下, 這滿
    Hong Kong 今下
    Sabah 今下, 今下子, 今下仔
    Senai 今下
    Huizhou Jixi 爾歇
    Shexian 爾扎兒
    Jin Taiyuan 如今, 而今
    Xinzhou 現時
    Baochang 現在
    Jining 這會兒
    Hohhot 這會兒
    Baotou 這會兒
    Dongsheng 這會兒
    Linhe 這咱會兒
    Haibowan 如今
    Min Bei Jian'ou 迦今, 今迦, 現刻
    Dikou
    Zhenqian
    Wuyishan 今下
    Shibei , 今下
    Min Dong Fuzhou 現時, 現刻, 現在, 現今,
    Fuqing 現時
    Ningde 現在,
    Fuding 足古
    Min Nan Xiamen 這陣, 這滿, 這輒仔, 這輒, 這站仔, 這站, 這幫, 現主時, 現時,
    Quanzhou 這陣, 這站仔, 這站, 這幫, 現主時, 現時, 現當今, ,
    Zhangzhou 這陣, 這輒仔, 這輒, 這站仔, 這站, 這幫, 現主時, 現時, 現主在, 現在, 現曾,
    Taipei 這馬, 這站 mT, 現主時 mT
    Kaohsiung , 這時, 這陣, 這馬
    Tainan , 這時, 這陣, 這馬
    Taichung 這馬, 這陣
    Wuqi 這馬
    Hsinchu 這陣, 這馬
    Taitung 這馬
    Lukang 這陣, 這馬, 這路尾
    Sanxia 這馬
    Yilan , 這陣, 這馬
    Kinmen 這陣
    Magong 這陣, , 這馬
    Penang 今仔, 當今
    Singapore 這時, 這陣, 當今
    Philippines (Manila) 這陣
    Chaozhou 此在, 現在, 現時
    Johor Bahru 現在
    Wenchang 現旦
    Haikou 現旦
    Leizhou 現旦
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) 而今
    Wu Shanghai 現在,
    Suzhou 現在, 姑歇, 哀歇, 該歇
    Hangzhou 記歇
    Wenzhou 恁界, 恁仰界
    Chongming 那末
    Danyang 格歇候, 格娘收, 現在
    Jinhua 格孑
    Xiang Changsha 如今, 如至今, 如嶄, 現在
    Shuangfeng 侯基
    Xiangtan 咯如在
    Loudi 而界, 如今
    Note mT - mainstream Taiwanese (no particular region identified)

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. now; at present

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    Kanji in this term
    いま
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    AdverbEdit

    (hiragana いま, rōmaji ima)

    1. now
    2. just now
    3. soon

    Related termsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana いま, rōmaji ima)

    1. now; present
       (いま) ()きる
      ima o ikiru
      live in the now
       (いま)はもうない。
      Ima wa mō nai.
      It does not exist any more. (lit. "now it is no longer existing.")
    2. just now
      Synonym: さっき
       (いま) (こえ)
      ima no koe
      that voice just now
      なんだったんだろう、 (いま)の。
      Nan datta n darō, ima no.
      What was that just now…?

    SynonymsEdit

    Derived termsEdit

    Terms derived from  (いま) (ima):

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana こん, rōmaji Kon)

    1. A surname​.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 이제 (ije geum))

    1. now; at present

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: kim[1][2][3], câm (()(ngâm)(thiết))[1][2]
    : Nôm readings: kim[1][2][4][5], câm[1][2], căm[1], cầm[1], ngấm[1]

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit