See also:
U+4ECA, 今
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4ECA

[U+4EC9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4ECB]

Translingual

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Stroke order
Mainland China
 
Stroke order
All regions except mainland China
 

Alternative forms

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  • In all regions except mainland China, the stroke between 𠆢 and for (and its derived characters) is written with a horizontal line.
  • In mainland China (based on Xin Zixing standardized form), the stroke between 𠆢 and for (and its derived characters) is written with a slanting dot instead.
  • In the historical Kangxi dictionary, the component below 𠆢 is written followed by 𠃍 instead.

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 9, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 人戈弓 (OIN) or 人一弓 (OMN), four-corner 80207, composition (G) or (HTJKV))

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 91, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 358
  • Dae Jaweon: page 194, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 105, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4ECA

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事) – An inverted (yuē) ("to speak"), so the inverted one means "not to speak". Another theory suggests that it depicts something in the mouth. Maybe the original form of (OC *ɡrɯmʔ, *ɡrɯms) or (OC *ŋɡrɯm, *ŋɡrɯms). The derivative (OC *ɡɯːm) refers to the original word.

Etymology 1

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𫢉
⿱𠆢𬼽
𱎜

Etymology not clear. The word's root may be (OC *ɡɯ, “this”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • kin - vernacular;
  • kim - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter kim
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kjim/
Li
Rong
/kjəm/
Wang
Li
/kĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jīn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gam1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jīn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kim ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]r[ə]m/
English now

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6599
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*krɯm/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. now; at present; current
      ―  jīntiān  ―  the current day; today
    以後以后  ―  cóngjīnyǐhòu  ―  from now onwards.
    Synonym: 現在现在
  2. modern times
    古往古往  ―  gǔwǎngjīnlái  ―  from ancient to modern times.
    Synonym: 現代现代 (xiàndài)
    Antonym:
  3. this
      ―  jīn xià  ―  this summer
    [Cantonese]  ―  gam1 ci3 [Jyutping]  ―  this time
    Synonyms: (),
  4. (literary) thus; promptly
    Synonyms: , 立刻 (lìkè)
  5. (literary) if
    Synonyms: , 假如 (jiǎrú)
  6. a surname
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Etymology 2

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms


Teochew
This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “from ? or cognate with Eastern Min ?”

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Southern Min, Puxian Min) now
  2. (Southern Min) then; in that case
  3. (Taiwanese Hokkien) nowadays
Synonyms
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Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Alternative forms

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Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. now; at present

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology

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Kanji in this term
いま
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1] From Proto-Japonic *ima.

Pronunciation

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Adverb

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(いま) (ima

  1. now
  2. just now
  3. soon
    Synonyms: すぐ (sugu, soon), すぐに (sugu ni, immediately)

Noun

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(いま) (ima

  1. now; present
    (いま)()きる
    ima o ikiru
    live in the now
    (いま)はもうない。
    Ima wa mō nai.
    It does not exist any more. (lit. "now it is already none.")
  2. just now
    Synonym: さっき
    (いま)(こえ)
    ima no koe
    that voice just now
    なんだったんだろう、(いま)の。
    Nan datta n darō, ima no.
    What was that just now…?

Synonyms

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Derived terms

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Prefix

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(こん) (kon-

  1. (temporal) this
    (こん)世紀(せいき)最大(さいだい)危機(きき)
    kon-seiki saidai no kiki
    greatest danger of this century
    (こん)シーズン
    kon-shīzun
    this season

Proper noun

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(こん) (Kon

  1. a surname

References

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  1. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC kim). Recorded as Middle Korean ⿱𠆢𬼽/ (kum) (Yale: kum) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 이제 (ije geum))

  1. (literary) Hanja form? of (this).
  2. (literary) Hanja form? of (now; at present).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: kim[1][2][3], câm (()(ngâm)(thiết))[1][2]
: Nôm readings: kim[1][2][4][5], câm[1][2], căm[1], cầm[1], ngấm[1]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References

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