U+6BD2, 毒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BD2

[U+6BD1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BD3]

Translingual

edit
Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean

Han character

edit

(Kangxi radical 80, +4, 8 strokes in traditional Chinese and Japanese, 9 strokes in simplified Chinese, cangjie input 手一田卜戈 (QMWYI), four-corner 50507, composition (GKV) or (HTJ))

Derived characters

edit

References

edit
  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 589, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16730
  • Dae Jaweon: page 981, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2382, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6BD2

Chinese

edit

Glyph origin

edit
Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Pictogram (象形) - a woman wearing a feathered ornament - original form of (OC *duːɡs, *duːɡ).

Alternatively, Li Xueqin (2012) proposes it is a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *l'uːɡ) : semantic (vegetation) + phonetic (OC *ʔmɯː, *ʔmɯːʔ), meaning "a type of poisonous plant."

Etymology

edit
“poison”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *duk ~ tuk (poison; to poison). Cognate with Tibetan དུག (dug, poison; toxin), གདུག (gdug), གདུག་པ (gdug pa, vicious; evil; poisonous), Burmese တောက် (tauk, to suffer from toxicity; to be ill; to be poisonous).
“to poison” (Pronunciation 2)
A departing tone variant, meaning “to poison”, is preserved in southern varieties, including Cantonese, Hakka, Min, southern Gan, and southern Wu. It is derived from the sense “poison” with the *–s suffix in Old Chinese.
“nerdy”
Derived from 毒撚.

Pronunciation 1

edit
trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Note: duk1 - only used in the phonetic transcription 身毒 (“India”).
Note:
  • dù - literary;
  • tū - vernacular.
Note:
  • dŭk - literary;
  • dĕ̤k - vernacular.
Note:
  • to̍k - literary (“poison; cruel; fierce”);
  • ta̍k - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (7)
Final () (6)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter dowk
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/duok̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/duok̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/dok̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dawk̚/
Li
Rong
/dok̚/
Wang
Li
/duok̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱuok̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
duk6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ dowk ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]ˁuk/
English poison (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2486
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l'uːɡ/

Definitions

edit

  1. poison; toxin; venom; bane
      ―  yǒu  ―  poisonous
  2. calamity; disaster; trouble
  3. pain; suffering
  4. crime; evil
  5. to poison; to administer poison to
    蟑螂  ―  sǐ zhāngláng  ―  to kill cockroaches with poison
  6. to harm; to injure
  7. to hate; to resent
  8. Alternative form of (, to manage; to govern)
  9. poisonous; noxious
      ―  shé  ―  venomous snake
      ―    ―  poisonous gas
  10. heavy; thick
  11. (figurative) pernicious influence; harmful influence
      ―    ―  residual poison
  12. severe; fierce; violent
    外面太陽 [MSC, trad.]
    外面太阳 [MSC, simp.]
    Wàimiàn de tàiyáng hěn . [Pinyin]
    The sun outside is very fierce.
  13. malicious; cruel; sinister
    心腸心肠  ―  Tā de xīncháng zhēn !  ―  How cruel is he!
  14. (literary, or in compounds) narcotics; narcotic drugs
      ―    ―  to take drugs (of illicit or recreational nature)
      ―  fàn  ―  to traffic in narcotics
  15. (Hong Kong Cantonese) nerdy

Synonyms

edit

Compounds

edit

Descendants

edit
Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (どく) (doku)
  • Korean: 독(毒) (dok)
  • Vietnamese: độc ()

Others:

  • Vietnamese: thuốc (drug)
  • Zhuang: doeg (poison; to poison; evil)

Pronunciation 2

edit
trad.
simp. #
alternative forms Cantonese
Hakka
Eastern Min


BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ dowk ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-[d]ˁuk-s/
English to poison (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

Definitions

edit

  1. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min, colloquial) to poison; to administer poison to

Pronunciation 3

edit
trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𭖪

Definitions

edit

  1. Used in 毒冒, which is an alternative form of 玳瑁 (dàimào)

References

edit

Japanese

edit

Kanji

edit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. poison

Readings

edit

Compounds

edit


Kanji in this term
どく
Grade: 5
on’yomi

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

(どく) (doku

  1. poison, toxin

References

edit
  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

edit
Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource


Etymology 1

edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation

edit

Hanja

edit

(eumhun (dok dok))

  1. Hanja form? of (poison).

Compounds

edit

Etymology 2

edit

Hanja

edit

(eumhun 거북 (geobuk dae))

  1. Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (turtle).)
  2. Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (turtle).)

Vietnamese

edit

Han character

edit

: Hán Nôm readings: độc, nọc

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.