See also: , , and
U+771F, 真
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-771F

[U+771E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7720]
真 U+2F946, 真
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F946
眞
[U+2F945]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 真
[U+2F947]

真 U+2F947, 真
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F947
真
[U+2F946]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 睊
[U+2F948]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean

Alternative forms

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In simplified and traditional Chinese, the component is connected to the horizontal line below it (as seen in the Kangxi dictionary) whereas, in Japanese and Korean, is separate from that line.

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 109, +5, 10 strokes, cangjie input 十月一金 (JBMC), four-corner 40801, composition )

Usage notes

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The Kangxi dictionary considers as an unorthodox form (俗字) of . However, the traditional Kangxi form with on top is rarely used nowadays. In modern times, is considered the orthodox form in all regions except South Korea.

Derived characters

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  • (Original form of )

Further reading

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 805, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 23236
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1221, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 249, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+771F

Chinese

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trad. /
simp.
2nd round simp. 𰅴
alternative forms

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 

Originally phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ʔljin) : phonetic 𠂈 (OC *l'ɯːnʔ) + (cowry). Often (OC *rteːŋ, *teːŋ) was added as a second phonetic component. He Linyi posits it to be the original character for (OC *ʔl'ɯn, “rare; valuable”).

The sound component 𠂈 corrupted into in the modern form, and into in the orthodox seal script form . The bottom of the character in both forms derives from the components and corrupting into and .

Etymology

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan; cognate with Tibetan བདེན (bden, true; truth). Possibly connected with (OC *teŋ) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation

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Note: zêng1 - Jieyang, Pontianak.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (23)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsyin
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕin/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cin/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕiĕn/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhēn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zan1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhēn
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*ti[n]/
English true, real

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 17068
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔljin/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. true; genuine; real; actual
    鑽石項鏈 [MSC, trad.]
    钻石项链 [MSC, simp.]
    Nà bù shì zhēn zuànshí xiàngliàn, shì jiǎ de! [Pinyin]
    That's not a real diamond necklace, it's just a fake!
    那些鑽石還是贗品 [MSC, trad.]
    那些钻石还是赝品 [MSC, simp.]
    Nàxiē shì zhēn zuànshí háishì yànpǐn? [Pinyin]
    Are those real diamonds or only shams?
  2. clear; distinct; sharp
  3. really; truly; very; quite
    今天今天  ―  Jīntiān zhēn rè.  ―  It's so hot today.
    演員了不起 [MSC, trad.]
    演员了不起 [MSC, simp.]
    nà xiē yǎnyuán zhēn liǎobuqǐ [Pinyin]
    Those actors are really great.
      ―  Zhēn de ma?  ―  Really?
  4. portrait; image
  5. natural disposition
  6. (Chinese calligraphy) Short for 真書真书 (zhēnshū, “regular script”).
  7. () (telegraphy) the eleventh day of a month
  8. a surname
      ―  Zhēn Déxiù  ―  Zhen Dexiu (a Song dynasty scholar)

Synonyms

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しん) (shin)
  • Korean: 진(眞) (jin)
  • Vietnamese: chân ()

Others:

Compounds

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Further reading

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. truth
  2. reality
  3. sincerity
  4. naturalness
  5. regular script

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
しん
Grade: 3
on’yomi
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From Middle Chinese (MC tsyin).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(しん) (shin

  1. truth, reality
Derived terms
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Idioms
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Affix

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(しん) (shin

  1. truth, reality, genuineness
  2. natural, pristine
  3. complete, wholly
  4. regular script (楷書, kaisho)
  5. (logic) a true statement
    Antonym: (gi)
Derived terms
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Proper noun

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(しん) (Shin

  1. a surname
  2. a male or female given name

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
H
[noun] [from 712] : the truth, reality, genuineness
[prefix] [from 720] : real, genuine
[prefix] [from 759] : pure, unadulterated
[prefix] [from 1595] : definitely, certainly, exactly, precisely, directly
[prefix] [date unknown] : true, real, main (appended to words for animals or plants to indicate the representative type)
[prefix] [from 759] : (archaic, possibly obsolete, honorific) great, excellent
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
まこと
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
まこと
[noun] truth; reality; fact; genuineness
[noun] sincerity; honesty; faithfulness
[adverb] (dated) truly, really, absolutely, indeed
[interjection] used for recalling information previously forgotten or sudden change of subjects: that's right
[proper noun] , , 真琴: a unisex given name
Alternative spellings
, , , 真琴
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
nanori
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From classical adjective 厚し (atsushi), modern 厚い (atsui, thick, heavy; kind, warm).

Proper noun

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(あつし) (Atsushi

  1. a male given name

Etymology 5

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Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
nanori
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From classical adjective 正し (tadashi), modern 正しい (tadashii, correct, right, true).

Proper noun

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(ただし) or (たゞし) (Tadashi

  1. a male given name

Etymology 6

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Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
nanori
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From classical adjective 正し (masashi, accurate, authentic, correct).

Proper noun

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(まさし) (Masashi

  1. a male given name

References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  3. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (cham jin))

  1. Alternative form of

References

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  • Zonmal.com Hanja Dictionary (존말닷컴 한자사전/漢字辭典) (2002-2005). [2]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: chân, chan, chang, sân

  1. chữ Hán form of chân (truth).

Compounds

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