See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
毋-order.gif

EtymologyEdit

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
毋-bronze.svg 毋-bigseal.svg 毋-seal.svg

Simplified from (丿), replacing the two dots with one stroke.

Compare (from ).

Han characterEdit

(radical 80 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 田十 (WJ), four-corner 77500)

  1. do not
  2. not
  3. used as a surname
  4. rad. 80

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 588, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16721
  • Dae Jaweon: page 980, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2380, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6BCB

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

Note: This character is used as a substitute for Min Nan , which may be etymologically unrelated.

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (4)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/mɨo/ /mi̯u/ /mio/ /mio/ /muə̆/ /mĭu/ /mio/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ mju › /*mo/ don't

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
9301 0 /*ma/ 母轉註字

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (Min Nan) not
    捌字 [Min Nan]  ―  Góa pat-jī. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  I'm illterate (literally: I don't know characters)
  2. (Classical Chinese) do not
    綢繆 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    绸缪 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: Zhūzǐ Jiāxùn: the familial rules of Zhuzi (full text here)
    Yí wèi yǔ ér chóumóu, lín kě ér jué jǐng. [Pinyin]
    [One] should, [when it is] not yet raining, bind tightly [the window]. [One] should not [wait] until [one is] thirsty [to] dig [a] well.
    (Literally: One should prepare before it is too late, see 未雨綢繆未雨绸缪 (wèi yǔ chóumóu) and 臨渴掘井临渴掘井.)

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

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ReadingsEdit

Usage notesEdit

Not used in Japanese shinjitai in isolation – instead the unsimplified is used – but simplified form is used universally in compound jōyō characters, such as , .

However, not used in hyōgaiji, which are written in kyūjitai, such as .


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(mu) (hangeul , revised mu, McCune-Reischauer mu, Yale mu)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

()

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