See also: and
U+6BCB, 毋
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BCB

[U+6BCA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BCC]
U+2F4F, ⽏
KANGXI RADICAL DO NOT

[U+2F4E]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F50]
Commons:Category
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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 80, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 田十 (WJ), four-corner 77500, composition ⿻⿻𠃋𠃌𠂇(GHTV) or ⿻⿻𠃋𠃌(JK))

  1. Kangxi radical #80, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 588, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16721
  • Dae Jaweon: page 980, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2380, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6BCB

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms vernacular Hakka and Min Nan
vernacular Hakka and Min Nan
vernacular Min Nan
vernacular Min Nan

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

In the oracle bone script, (“mother”) was borrowed to represent this character. It was later specialized to distinguish it from “mother”, replacing the two dots with one stroke.

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with (OC *ma, “to not have”). Already in Zhou time, phonetically confused with and read like (OC *ma).

Cognate with (m4) in Cantonese, Teochew and Hakka.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Sixian:
    • mù - literary;
    • m̀ - vernacular.
  • Meixian:
    • vu2 - literary;
    • m2 - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • bû - literary;
    • m̄ - vernacular.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mɨo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mio/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /mio/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /muə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /mio/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mju ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mo/
    English don"t

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9301
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ma/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (literary) do not, don't
    2. (literary or Hakka, Hokkien) not
      捌字 [Min Nan]  ―  Góa pat-jī. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  I'm illiterate (literally: I don't know characters)
    3. (literary) Alternative form of (, “to not have”).
    4. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. do not, must not, be not
    2. "mother" radical

    ReadingsEdit

    Usage notesEdit

    Not used in Japanese shinjitai in isolation – instead the unsimplified is used – but simplified form is used universally in compound jōyō characters, such as , .

    However, not used in hyōgaiji, which are written in kyūjitai, such as .


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (mu) (hangeul , revised mu, McCune–Reischauer mu, Yale mu)

    1. do not
    2. not
    3. surname
    4. rad. 80

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    ()

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