U+7687, 皇
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7687

[U+7686]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7688]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order (Japan)
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 106, +4, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹日一土 (HAMG), four-corner 26104, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 786, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22701
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1201, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2645, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7687

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Pictogram (象形) ― a lit oil lamp. The derivative (OC *ɡʷaːŋ) refers to the original word.

Later developed into a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɡʷaːŋ): semantic (flame) + phonetic (OC *ɢʷaŋ, *ɢʷaŋs).

Etymology edit

Bodman (1980) proposes a connection with (OC *ɢʷaŋ) "king" (see there for more information).

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (102)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter hwang
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦwɑŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷɑŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwaŋ/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑŋ/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣwɑŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huáng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
wong4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
huáng huáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwang › ‹ hwang ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷˁaŋ/ /*[ɢ]ʷˁaŋ/
English yellow and white spotted sovereign

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12696
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡʷaːŋ/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. magnificent
  2. emperor; sovereign; ruler; superior
  3. royal; imperial; august
  4. a surname

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (おう) (ō); (こう) ()
  • Korean: 황(皇) (hwang)
  • Vietnamese: hoàng ()

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 6
kan’on

/kʷau//kʷɔː//kɔː//koː/

From Middle Chinese (MC hwang).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation edit

Affix edit

(こう) (くわう (kwau)?

  1. Creator
  2. monarch, ruler, sovereign
  3. emperor, mikado, tenno
  4. Japan, Japanese
Derived terms edit

Proper noun edit

(こう) (くわう (kwau)?

  1. a unisex given name

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
おう
Grade: 6
goon

/wau//wɔː//ɔː//oː/

From Middle Chinese (MC hwang).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation edit

Affix edit

(おう) (ōわう (wau)?

  1. emperor, mikado, tenno
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
すべ
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

/sume//sube/

From Old Japanese, as a shift from older sume.[1]

Previously thought to be derived as the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of Old Japanese verb 統ぶ (subu), modern 統べる (suberu, to control, to govern, to rule). However, later research into ancient phonetic spellings clarified that the be portion of the verb was realized as ⟨be2. During the Old Japanese stage, ⟨be2 could only have derived phonetically from ⟨me2, and not from the ⟨me1 syllable of the noun.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

(すべ) (sube-

  1. (archaic) prefix of praise and respect, usually towards (kami, Shinto deities) or 天皇 (tennō, Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan):
    1. divine, godly, heavenly
    2. imperial, royal, august
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
すめ
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

⟨sume1 → */sumʲe//sume/

From Old Japanese. Appears to be the older form.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

(すめ) (sume-

  1. (archaic) prefix of praise and respect, usually towards (kami, Shinto deities) or 天皇 (tennō, Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan):
    1. divine, godly, heavenly
    2. imperial, royal, august
Derived terms edit

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
すべら
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

From the prefix (sube-, see above) +‎ (-ra, nominalizing and pluralizing suffix).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

(すべら) (subera-

  1. (archaic) prefix of praise and respect, usually towards (kami, Shinto deities) or 天皇 (tennō, Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan):
    1. divine, godly, heavenly
    2. imperial, royal, august
Derived terms edit

Etymology 6 edit

Kanji in this term
すめら
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

From the prefix (sume-) +‎ (-ra, nominalizing and pluralizing suffix).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

(すめら) (sumera-

  1. (archaic) prefix of praise and respect, usually towards (kami, Shinto deities) or 天皇 (tennō, Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan):
    1. divine, godly, heavenly
    2. imperial, royal, august
Derived terms edit

Proper noun edit

(すめら) (Sumera

  1. a female given name

Etymology 7 edit

Kanji in this term
すべらぎ
Grade: 6
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
天皇

/sumeraɡi//suberaɡi/

Shift from sumeragi below, with the nasal /m/ becoming a plosive /b/.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [sɨᵝbe̞ɾa̠ɡʲi]

Noun edit

(すべらぎ) (suberagi

  1. (archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
Derived terms edit

Etymology 8 edit

Kanji in this term
すめらぎ
Grade: 6
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
天皇

⟨sume1ro2ki1 → */sumʲerəkʲi/ → */sumeraki//sumeraɡi/

Possibly a shift from Old Japanese 天皇 (sume1ro2ki1).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [sɨᵝme̞ɾa̠ɡʲi]

Noun edit

(すめらぎ) (sumeragi

  1. (archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan

Proper noun edit

(すめらぎ) (Sumeragi

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 9 edit

Various nanori readings.

Proper noun edit

(きみ) (Kimi

  1. a female given name

(きらり) (Kirari

  1. a female given name

(ただす) (Tadasu

  1. a unisex given name

(みゆき) (Miyuki

  1. a female given name

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Chinese (MC hwang).

Historical readings

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum hwang))

  1. Hanja form? of (king; monarch; ruler).

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle Chinese .

Historical readings

Hanja edit

(eumhun 엄숙할 (eomsukhal wang))

  1. (archaic) Hanja form? of (to be solemn).

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: hoàng ((hồ)(quang)(thiết))[1][2][3][4], huỳnh[3][4]
: Nôm readings: hoàng[1][3][5], huỳnh[3]

  1. chữ Hán form of hoàng (emperor).

Compounds edit

References edit