ChineseEdit

day; sky; heaven emperor; surname
simp. and trad.
(天皇)
anagram 皇天
 
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EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “what is etymology of Chinese sense?”)

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (6) (33)
Final () (85) (102)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () IV I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰen/ /ɦwɑŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰen/ /ɦʷɑŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɛn/ /ɣuɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɛn/ /ɦwaŋ/
Li
Rong
/tʰen/ /ɣuɑŋ/
Wang
Li
/tʰien/ /ɣuɑŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰien/ /ɣwɑŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tiān huáng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
tin1 wong4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
tiān huáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ then › ‹ hwang ›
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ˁi[n]/ /*[ɢ]ʷˁaŋ/
English heaven sovereign

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 12387 12696
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰl'iːn/ /*ɡʷaːŋ/
Notes

NounEdit

天皇

  1. king of heaven; heavenly sovereign; (figuratively) emperor
  2. emperor or empress (regnant) of Japan

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (天皇):

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
てん
Grade: 1
おう > のう
Grade: 6
goon
 
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Wikipedia ja
 
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Wikipedia

/ten wau//tenwɔː//tenːɔː//tenːoː/

From Middle Chinese 天皇 (MC tʰen ɦwɑŋ) with the original sense of “heavenly sovereign”.

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese. The ō reading for changes to as an instance of renjō (連声).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(てん)(のう) (tennōてんわう (tenwau)?

  1. an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
    (めい)(しょう)(てん)(のう)Meishō TennōEmpress Meishō
    (めい)()(てん)(のう)Meiji TennōEmperor Meiji
    Synonyms: 内の上 (uchi no ue), 皇天 (kōten), 内裏 (dairi), 天子 (tenshi), (mikado)
  2. (usually in Chinese contexts) an emperor, ruler, or other monarch with a heavenly mandate
    Synonym: 天子 (tenshi)
  3. (by extension) a person having a strength or profession in a particular field of study or expertise
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
てん
Grade: 1
こう
Grade: 6
kan’on
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

/ten kʷau//tenkʷɔː//tenkɔː//tenkoː/

From Middle Chinese 天皇 (MC tʰen ɦwɑŋ).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(てん)(こう) (tenkōてんくわう (tenkwau)?

  1. (usually in Chinese contexts) an emperor, ruler, or other monarch with a heavenly mandate
    Synonym: 天子 (tenshi)

Proper nounEdit

(てん)(こう) (Tenkōてんくわう (tenkwau)?

  1. (Chinese mythology) the first of the Three Sovereigns, possibly 伏羲 (Fukki, Fu Xi)
Related termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
すべらぎ
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun
Alternative spelling

/sumeraɡi//suberaɡi/

Shift from sumeragi below, with the nasal /m/ becoming a plosive /b/.

The kanji spelling is from tennō above.

NounEdit

天皇(すべらぎ) (suberagi

  1. (archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
CitationsEdit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:天皇.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
すめらぎ
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun
Alternative spelling

⟨sume1ro2ki1 → */sumʲerəkʲi/ → */sumeraki//sumeraɡi/

Possibly a shift from Old Japanese 天皇 (sume1ro2ki1).

The kanji spelling is from tennō above.

NounEdit

天皇(すめらぎ) (sumeragi

  1. (honorific, archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
CitationsEdit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:天皇.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
すめらぎみ
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun

From (sumera-, prefix of praise and respect) +‎ (kimi, lord, mastersovereign). The kimi changes to gimi as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

The kanji spelling is from tennō above.

NounEdit

天皇(すめらぎみ) (sumeragimi

  1. (honorific, archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
CitationsEdit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:天皇.

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
すめらみこと
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun
Alternative spelling
皇尊

From Old Japanese.

From (sumera-, prefix of praise and respect) +‎ (mikoto, Highness).

The kanji spelling is from tennō above.

NounEdit

天皇(すめらみこと) (sumeramikoto

  1. (honorific, archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
    (はつ)馭天下之(くにしらす)天皇(すめらみこと)
    Hatsu Kunishirasu Sumeramikoto
    the First Founding Emperor
Derived termsEdit

AnagramsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

天皇 (cheonhwang) (hangeul 천황)

  1. Hanja form? of 천황 (Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan).

Old JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Possibly from (sume1ro2-, apophonic form of sume1ra-, prefix of praise and respect) +‎ (ki1mi1, lord, mastersovereign), with the final mi1 dropping due to poetic reasons.

The kanji spelling is an orthographic borrowing from Middle Chinese 天皇 (MC tʰen ɦwɑŋ).

NounEdit

天皇 (sume1ro2ki1) (kana すめろき)

  1. (honorific) a sovereign who governs a region
  2. (by extension, honorific) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
  3. (by extension) the imperial lineage or family line
  4. the Emperor's reign
CitationsEdit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:天皇.

DescendantsEdit
  • Japanese: 天皇 (sumeragi, suberagi)

Etymology 2Edit

From (sume1ra-, prefix of praise and respect) +‎ (mi1ko2to2, Highness).

The kanji spelling is an orthographic borrowing from Middle Chinese 天皇 (MC tʰen ɦwɑŋ).

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

天皇 (sume1rami1ko2to2) (kana すめらみこと)

  1. (honorific) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
Derived termsEdit
CitationsEdit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:天皇.

DescendantsEdit

See alsoEdit


VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

天皇

  1. Hán tự form of thiên hoàng (Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan).