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ChineseEdit

day; sky; heaven emperor; surname
simp. and trad.
(天皇)
anagram 皇天
 
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PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (6) (33)
Final () (85) (102)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () IV I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰen/ /ɦwɑŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰen/ /ɦʷɑŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɛn/ /ɣuɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɛn/ /ɦwaŋ/
Li
Rong
/tʰen/ /ɣuɑŋ/
Wang
Li
/tʰien/ /ɣuɑŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰien/ /ɣwɑŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tiān huáng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
tiān huáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ then › ‹ hwang ›
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ˁi[n]/ /*[ɢ]ʷˁaŋ/
English heaven sovereign

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 12387 12696
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰl'iːn/ /*ɡʷaːŋ/
Notes

NounEdit

天皇

  1. king of heaven; heavenly sovereign; (figuratively) emperor
  2. emperor of Japan; mikado; Tennou

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (天皇):

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
てん
Grade: 1
おう > のう
Grade: 6
goon

/tenwau//tenwɔː//tenɔː//tenoː//tenːoː/

From Middle Chinese 天皇 (MC tʰen ɦwɑŋ), with the original sense of "heavenly sovereign". The goon pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

The ō reading for changes to as an instance of renjō (連声).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

天皇 (hiragana てんのう, rōmaji tennō, historical hiragana てんわう)

  1. an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
    Synonyms: 皇尊 (sumera-mikoto), (mikado)
     (めい) (しょう) (てん) (のう)
    Meishō Tennō
    Empress Meishō
     (めい) () (てん) (のう)
    Meiji Tennō
    Emperor Meiji
  2. an honorific title of an emperor, ruler, or other monarch, usually in Chinese contexts, with a heavenly mandate (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    Synonym: 天子 (tenshi)
  3. (by extension) a person having a strength or profession in a particular field of study or expertise
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
てん
Grade: 1
こう
Grade: 6
kan’on

/tenkwau//tenkwɔː//tenkɔː//tenkoː/

From a later borrowing of Middle Chinese 天皇 (MC tʰen ɦwɑŋ).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

天皇 (hiragana てんこう, rōmaji tenkō, historical hiragana てんくわう)

  1. name for an emperor, ruler, or other monarch, usually in Chinese contexts, with a heavenly mandate (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    Synonym: 天子 (tenshi)

Proper nounEdit

天皇 (hiragana てんこう, rōmaji Tenkō, historical hiragana てんくわう)

  1. (Chinese mythology) the first of the Three Sovereigns, possibly 伏羲 (Fukki, Fu Xi)

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
Irregular

From Old Japanese, first attested in the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE).

Appears to be derived from (sumero-, apophonic form of sumera-, a prefix indicating praise and respect) +‎ (kimi, lord, mastersovereign), with the final -mi dropping due to poetic reasons. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Usually spelled with rendaku (連濁), as sumerogi. The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓), from tennō above.

NounEdit

天皇 (hiragana すめろぎ, rōmaji sumerogi, alternative reading すめろき, rōmaji sumeroki)

  1. (historical, archaic) a sovereign, usually from a powerful clan, governing a region
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 13, poem 3312), text here
       (こもり) () ()長谷 (はつせ) () (ぐにに) ()延為 (ばひせす) (あが)天皇寸 (すめろき) ()... [Man'yōgana]
      隠口 (こもりく) (はつ) () () (ぐに)によばひせす ()すめろきよ... [Modern spelling]
      komoriku no Hatsuse oguni ni yobai sesu aga sumerogi yo...
      (please add an English translation of this example)
  2. (archaic, by extension) an honorific title addressing an Emperor of Japan
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4465), text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () ()... [Man'yōgana]
      久方 (ひさかた) (あま) () (ひら) (たか)千穂 (ちほ) (たけ)天降 (あも)りしすめろき (かみ)御代 (みよ)より... [Modern spelling]
      hisakata no ama no to hiraki takachiho no take ni amorishi sumeroki no kami no miyo yori...
      (please add an English translation of this example)
  3. (archaic, by extension) the imperial family line
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 19, poem 4267), text here
       () () () () () () () (よろづ) () ()如是 (かくし) () () () () () () () () ()立年 (たつとし) () () () [Man'yōgana]
      天皇 (すめろき) () () (よろづ) ()にかくしこそ () ()きらめめ () (とし) () [Modern spelling]
      sumeroki no miyo yorozuyo ni kakushi koso meshi-akirameme tatsutoshi no ha ni
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonym: 皇統 (kōtō)
  4. (archaic) the Emperor's reign
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 3, poem 443), text here
      天雲之 (あまくもの)向伏國 (むかぶすくにの)武士 (もののふ) ()所云人者 (いはれしひとは)皇祖 (すめろきの) (かみ) () () (かど) ()外重 (とのへ) () (たち) (さもらひ)... [Man'yōgana]
      天雲 (あまくも) () () (くに)武士 (もののふ) ()はれし (ひと)天皇 (すめろき) (かみ) () (かど) () () () (さもら)ひ... [Modern spelling]
      amakumo no mukabusu kuni no mononofu to iwareshi hito wa sumeroki no kami no mikado ni tonoe ni tachi-samorai
      (please add an English translation of this example)

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun

From Old Japanese.

Possibly a compound of (sumera-, prefix expressing praise and respect) +‎ (kimi, lord, mastersovereign).

Usually spelled with rendaku (連濁), as sumeragi. The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓), from tennō above.

NounEdit

天皇 (hiragana すめらぎみ, rōmaji sumeragimi, alternative reading すめらきみ, rōmaji sumerakimi)

  1. (archaic) Same as すめろき (sumeroki) above
    • 943, Nihongi Kyōen Waka (poem 50)
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       (こと) ()のあはれなればやすめらきみ () () (たくみ) (つみ)をゆるせる [Modern spelling]
      koto no ne no awarenareba ya sumerakimi Hida no takumi no tsumi o yuruseru
      (please add an English translation of this example)

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun

First attested in Middle Japanese literature such as the Kokin Wakashū (905 CE).

Possibly a shift from sumeragimi above, with the final mi dropping either for poetic reasons. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Usually spelled with rendaku (連濁), as sumeragi. The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓), from tennō above.

NounEdit

天皇 (hiragana すめらぎ, rōmaji sumeragi, alternative reading すめらき, rōmaji sumeraki)

  1. (archaic) Same as すめろき (sumeroki) above
    • 943, Nihongi Kyōen Waka (poem 77)
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
      すめらぎ近江 (あふみ) (みや) (つく)りおきし (とき)のまにまに () ()もたえせず [Modern spelling]
      sumeragi no Ōmi-no-miya ni tsukuri-okishi toki no manimani oyo mo tae sezu
      (please add an English translation of this example)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun

/sumeraki//suberaki//suberaɡi/

Shift from sumeraki/sumeragi above, the nasal /m/ becomes plosive /b/.

Usually spelled with rendaku (連濁), as suberagi. The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓), from tennō above.

NounEdit

天皇 (hiragana すべらぎ, rōmaji suberagi, alternative reading すべらき, rōmaji suberaki)

  1. (archaic) Same as すめろき (sumeroki) above
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 7Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun

From Old Japanese.

Derived from (sumera-, prefix expressing praise and respect) +‎ (mikoto, style of an emperor, equivalent to “Highness).

The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓), from tennō above.

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

天皇 (hiragana すめらみこと, rōmaji sumeramikoto)

  1. (archaic) an honorific title addressing an Emperor of Japan
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

天皇 (cheonhwang) (hangeul 천황)

  1. Hanja form? of 천황 (the Emperor of Japan, mikado).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

天皇

  1. Hán tự form of thiên hoàng (the Emperor of Japan).