See also:
U+51A0, 冠
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51A0

[U+519F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51A1]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 14, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 月一山戈 (BMUI), four-corner 37214, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 130, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1580
  • Dae Jaweon: page 292, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 303, character 18
  • Unihan data for U+51A0

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠖌
𭁺
𠙙
𠜍
𢃙

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kŋoːn, *kŋoːns) and ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : semantic (hat) + phonetic (OC *ŋon, head) + semantic (hand) – a hand putting a hat on the head.

Earlier forms are phono-semantic (形聲形声, OC *kŋoːn, *kŋoːns) : semantic (hat) + phonetic (OC *ŋon).

Etymology

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)wa-n (to put on; to wear; to clothe). Cognate with Tibetan བགོ (bgo, to put on; to wear; clothing), གོས (gos, clothes; garments; dress), གོན (gon), གྱོན (gyon, to put on; to wear), སྐོན (skon, to dress; to clothe).

Pronunciation 2 is the exopassive derivation of pronunciation 1, literally "(make someone to) be capped" (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • guang1 - Shantou;
  • guêng1 - Chaozhou.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (62)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter kwan
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuɑn/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʷɑn/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwan/
Li
Rong
/kuɑn/
Wang
Li
/kuɑn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuɑn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guān
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gun1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guān
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwan ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k.ʔ]ˁor/
English cap (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 16107
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kŋoːn/

Definitions

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  1. hat; cap
      ―  huángguān  ―  crown
    楚楚  ―  guānchǔchǔ  ―  well-groomed
  2. hat-shaped thing
      ―  huāguān  ―  wreath; crown
      ―  guān  ―  cockscomb
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Pronunciation 2

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Note:
  • guang3 - Shantou;
  • guêng3 - Chaozhou.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (62)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter kwanH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuɑnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʷɑnH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwanH/
Li
Rong
/kuɑnH/
Wang
Li
/kuɑnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuɑnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gun3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwanH ›
Old
Chinese
/*k.ʔˁor-s/
English cap (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 16109
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kŋoːns/

Definitions

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  1. (literary) to put on a hat; to wear a hat
    沐猴而  ―  mùhóu'érguàn  ―  a macaque wearing a hat
  2. (historical) ceremony marking a male's coming of age at 20
  3. (historical, of a male) to reach adulthood
  4. to rank first; to excel; to surpass
      ―  guànjūn  ―  champion
  5. (literary) to cover
  6. to precede (e.g. with a title); to attach; to put on
    夫姓  ―  guàn fūxìng  ―  to add on one's husband's surname
  7. champion; winner; victor
      ―  duóguàn  ―  to take first prize
  8. (linguistics) Short for 冠詞冠词 (guàncí, “article”).
  9. a surname
Synonyms
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  • (ceremony marking a male's coming of age at 20): 元服 (yuánfú)

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. crown
  2. best, peerless

Readings

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Compounds

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Derived terms

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
かがふり
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/kaɡapuri//kaɡafuri/

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ka̠ɡa̠ɸɯ̟ᵝɾʲi]

Noun

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(かがふり) (kagafuri

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) head covering; headdress, crown
  2. (by extension, archaic) order, rank
See also
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
かぶり
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
被り

Likely a shift from kagafuri above, ancient kagapuri. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(かぶり) (kaburi

  1. headdress, crown
  2. (theater) large attendance, full house
    Synonym: 大入り (ōiri)
  3. (archaic) order, rank

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
かむり
Grade: S
kun’yomi

A shift from kaburi above. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(かむり) (kamuri

  1. headdress, crown
  2. distance from the tunnel's roof to the surface directly above it
  3. (poetry) first (traditionally, five) morae of a haiku, etc.; specifically, the first verse or line of a poem

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
こうぶり
Grade: S
kun’yomi

A shift from kagafuri above, ancient kagapuri.[1]

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ko̞ːbɯ̟ᵝɾʲi]

Noun

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(こうぶり) (kōburiかうぶり (kauburi)?

  1. headdress, crown
  2. order, rank
  3. Synonym of 年爵 (an annual salary in the Heian period)
Compounds
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Etymology 5

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Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
かんむり
Grade: S
kun’yomi

The modern spelling. A shift from kōburi above, historical kauburi.[1] Also encountered is kanburi.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [kã̠mbɯ̟ᵝɾʲi]

Noun

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(かんむり) or (かんぶり) (kanmuri or kanburi

  1. a crown (royal headdress)
    • 1999 November 18, “(かんむり)(いただ)(あお)(つばさ) [Crowned Blue Wings]”, in Vol.6, Konami:
      (あたま)()(かんむり)のように()える、(あお)(じろ)()えるトリ。
      Atama no ke ga kanmuri no yō ni mieru, aojiroku moeru tori.
      A bluish fiery bird whose feathers on its head resemble a crown.
  2. a type of traditional cap
  3. name; title; named sponsorship of a program, event, team, etc.​
  4. the top radical of a kanji, such as as in itself
Compounds
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Proper noun

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(かんむり) (Kanmuri

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 6

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Kanji in this term
さか
Grade: S
irregular

Clipping of ()(さか) (tosaka). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(さか) (saka

  1. comb, crest (of a bird, particularly a chicken or pheasant); cockscomb

Etymology 7

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Kanji in this term
かん
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC kwan|kwanH).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(かん) (kanくわん (kwan)?

  1. headpiece, crown
Derived terms
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Compounds
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Adjective

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(かん) (kanくわん (kwan)?-tari (adnominal (かん)とした (kan to shita) or (かん)たる (kan taru), adverbial (かん) (kan to) or (かん)として (kan to shite))

  1. crown; champion

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC kwan|kwanH). Recorded as Middle Korean (kwan) (Yale: kwan) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (gat gwan))

  1. Hanja form? of (crown; hat).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: quan, quán

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.