See also:
U+79AE, 禮
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-79AE

[U+79AD]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+79AF]
U+F9B6, 禮
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9B6

[U+F9B5]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9B7]

Translingual edit

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean

Alternative forms edit

In Traditional Chinese, the component on the left of U+79AE is . In Korean hanja and Japanese kyūjitai, the component on the left of U+79AE is rather than , which is also the historical form that appears in the Kangxi dictionary. A CJK compatibility ideograph exists at U+F9B6 to reflect the form found in the Kangxi dictionary.

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 113, +13, 18 strokes, cangjie input 戈火廿田廿 (IFTWT), four-corner 35218, composition (GHTV) or (JK or U+F9B6))

Derived characters edit

Related characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 847, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24844
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1268, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2409, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+79AE

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Ancient script Small seal script
           

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *riːʔ) and ideogrammic compound (會意会意): semantic (altar) + phonetic (OC *riːʔ, ceremony) – performing rites at the altar.

Originally written , see there for more.

Etymology edit

Uncertain. Schuessler (2007) proposes that this is an old areal etymon. Compare Tibetan ཞེ་ས (zhe sa, respect, honor, deference), རྗེ་བོ (rje bo, lord, nobleman), རྗེད (rjed, to honor; reverence); Mru [script needed] (ri, ritual) is possibly borrowed from Austroasiatic (cf. Mon [script needed] (rèh seh, to respect, to revere); Thin Khmu [script needed] (rɛh, to lift up); both from Proto-Mon-Khmer *reh (to raise up, to exalt)).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • lài - vernacular;
  • lǐ - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • loi2 - vernacular;
    • li2 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (39)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Baxter lejX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /leiX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /leiX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lɛiX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lɛjX/
    Li
    Rong
    /leiX/
    Wang
    Li
    /lieiX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /lieiX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    lai5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lejX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r]ˁijʔ/
    English propriety, ceremony

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7839
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*riːʔ/

    Definitions edit

    1. ritual; rite; ceremony
        ―  hūn  ―  wedding
        ―  sāng  ―  funeral
    2. rules of etiquette; rules of propriety
    3. courtesy; etiquette; manners
        ―  jìng  ―  to salute
      多人不怪多人不怪  ―  duōrénbùguài  ―  nobody will find fault with extra courtesy
    4. present; gift (Classifier: m c)
        ―    ―  gift
    5. to treat with respect and courtesy
      敬賢敬贤  ―  jìngxiánshì  ―  to treat worthies and intellectuals respectfully and courteously
    6. 48th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "ritual" (𝌵)
    7. a surname

    Usage notes edit

    Usually, a single () refers to a gift that involves more serious social interaction. For gifts between friends, 禮物礼物 (lǐwù) is used instead.

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji edit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of (propriety; courtesy; politeness; etiquette)

    Readings edit

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC lejX).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 례도/예도 (ryedo/yedo rye), South Korea 례도/예도 (ryedo/yedo ye))

    1. Hanja form? of / (manners; etiquette).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese edit

    chữ Hán Nôm in this term

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: lễ (()(đệ)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: lễ[1][2][4], lạy[3][5], lẻ[1][3][5][4], lẫy[2][3][5][4], rẽ[2][3], rẩy[2][5], lẩy[3][5], lãi[3][4], lể[5][4], lởi[3], lỡi[3], lấy[3], lảy[4], rẻ[4]

    1. chữ Hán form of lễ (ritual; etiquette; to kowtow; an offering; ceremony).
    2. Nôm form of lạy (to kowtow).
    3. Nôm form of lẻ (odd (not divisible by two)).

    References edit