BulgarianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *-ьje.

Suffix 1Edit

-ие (-ien

  1. Deverbial, forming action or result nouns: -tion, -ance, -ing
    вям (vjam, to be aware) (archaic, obsolete)ведие (vedie, knowledge) (obsolete)езиковедие (ezikovedie, linguistics)
    въстана (vǎstana, to revel)въстание (vǎstanie, uprising)
    нарека (nareka, to call)наречие (narečie, adverb)
    примиря се (primirja se, to put up with)примирие (primirie, truce)
    участвам (učastvam, to participate)участие (učastie, participation)
    допирам (dopiram, to touch, to contact)допирие (dopirie, contact, incidence) (dialectal)

Derived termsEdit

Suffix 2Edit

-ие (-ien

  1. Denominal, forming abstract nouns or nouns expressing capacity, state: -th, -ness, -ing
    From adjectives:
    здрав (zdrav, healthy)здраве (zdrave, health)
    висок (visok, high)височие (visočie, highness)
    велик (velik, great)величие (veličie, greatness)
    цял (cjal, whole) + мъдър (mǎdǎr, wise)целомъдрие (celomǎdrie, chastity)
    From action, result nouns:
    услов (uslov, term, claim) (obsolete)условие (uslovie, condition)
    зло (zlo, evil) + воня (vonja, odor, stink)зловоние (zlovonie, stench)
    бог (bog, god) + хула (hula, insult)богохулие (bogohulie, blasphemy)
    човек (čovek, human) + любов (ljubov, love)човеколюбие (čovekoljubie, philanthropy)
    From quality, property nouns:
    с- (s-) + част (čast, part)щастие (štastie, fortune)
    добро (dobro, good) + душа (duša, soul)добродушие (dobrodušie, fortune)
    благо (blago, virtue) + прилика (prilika, similarity)благоприличие (blagopriličie, decency)
    лихо (liho, excess) + мисъл (misǎl, thought)лихомислие (lihomislie, fault thinking) (obsolete)
    From adverbs:
    налице (nalice, in presence)наличие (naličie, presence, availability)
    насила (nasila, forcefully)насилие (nasilie, violence)
  2. Denominal, forming nouns expressing relationship, way, outcome: -th, -ness, -ing
    From base words:
    уста (usta, mouth)устие (ustie, estuary)
    стъбло (stǎblo, stem)стъблие (stǎblie, stemming, branching) (dialectal)
    Prefixed with из- (iz-, out of):
    из- (iz-) + дело (delo, deed)изделие (izdelie, product)
    из- (iz-) + чедо (čedo, child)изчадие (izčadie, abomination) (originally meaning “spawn”)
    Prefixed with за- (za-, trans-, for):
    за- (za-) + гора (gora, forest)загорие (zagorie, transylvan area)
    за- (za-) + глава (glava, head)заглавие (zaglavie, chapter, header)
    Prefixed with до- (do-, to, near):
    до- (do-) + вяра (vjara, faint)доверие (doverie, trust, confidence)
    до- (do-) + год (god, year) (dated)догодие (dogodie, remainder of the year) (dialectal)
    Prefixed with с- (s-), съ- (s-, with):
    съ- (s-) + звук (zvuk, sound)съзвучие (sǎzvučie, consonance)
    с- (s-) + полука (poluka, reached target, goal) (dialectal)сполучие (spolučie, prosperity)
    Prefixed with о- (o-)/об- (ob-, about, around):
    о- (o-) + гърло (gǎrlo, neck)огърлие (ogǎrlie, necklace)
    об- (ob-) + ход (hod, walk)обходие (obhodie, side way) (obsolete)
    Prefixed with на- (na-, on, ad-), над- (nad-, above, over):
    на- (na-) + вечер (večer, eve)навечерие (navečerie, evening)
    над- (nad-) + вес (ves, hanging, curtain)надвесие (nadvesie, arch, dome) (obsolete)
    Prefixed with под- (pod-, under):
    под- (pod-) + земя (zemja, earth)подземие (podzemie, dungeon)
    под- (pod-) + нога (noga, foot)подножие (podnožie, foothold)
    Prefixed with по- (po-, by, of):
    по- (po-) + доба (doba, proper time, place)подобие (podobie, resemblance)
    по- (po-) + кор (kor, reproach, reprimand) (archaic)покорие (pokorie, submissiveness) (obsolete)
    Prefixed with по- (po-, at):
    по- (po-) + река (reka, river)поречие (porečie, riverside area)
    по- (po-) + море (more, river)поморие (pomorie, seaside area)
    Prefixed with край- (kraj-, nearby)
    край- (kraj-) + бряг (brjag, forest)крайбрежие (krajbrežie, coastal area)
    край- (kraj-) + лес (les, wood)крайлесие (krajlesie, woodside area)
    Prefixed with при- (pri-, at), пре- (pre-, per), про- (pro-, for):
    при- (pri-) + глас (glas, voice)пригласие (priglasie, ovation, supporting chatter) (obsolete)
    пре- (pre-) + межда (mežda, boundary, medium)премеждие (premeždie, obstacle, misadventure)
  3. Forms instrumental nouns (usually tools and weapons) expressing purpose, functionality:
    From verbal stems:
    копая (kopaja, to ditch)копие (kopie, spear)
    From instrumental nouns:
    пособ (posob, mean)пособие (posobie, resource for self-education)
    Prefixes with об-/о-:
    о- (o-) + *rǫdъ (prickly, thorny, shaggy)оръдие (orǎdie, cannon, instrument)
    о- (o-) + *rǫgъ (offense, assault)оръжие (orǎžie, weaponry)

Alternative formsEdit

Usage notesEdit

Often, -ие (-ie) is used in combination with the prefix без- (bez-, without) to form abstract concepts expressing lack, non-presence, or shortage:

From action nouns:
власт (vlast, authority, rule)безвластие (bezvlastie, anarchy)
смърт (smǎrt, death)безсмъртие (bezsmǎrtie, immortality)
дело (delo, deed, case)безделие (bezdelie, idleness)
мълва (mǎlva, rumour)безмълвие (bezmǎlvie, muteness)
From spatial/temporal concepts:
ред (red, order, array)безредие (bezredie, disarray)
хармония (harmonija, harmony)безхармоние (bezharmonie, disharmony)
време (vreme, time)безвремие (bezvremie, timelessness)
срок (srok, term, deadline)безсрочие (bezsročie, without deadline)
From gauge/measurement nouns:
разлика (razlika, difference)безразличие (bezrazličie, indifference)
тегло (teglo, weight)безтегловие (bezteglovie, weightlessness)
From task/capacity nouns:
грижа (griža, concern)безгрижие (bezgrižie, carelessness)
сила (sila, force)безсилие (bezsilie, impotence, helplessness)
From substance/phenomenon nouns:
вода (voda, water)безводие (bezvodie, aridity)
вятър (vjatǎr, death)безветрие (bezvetrie, windlessness)
From abstract nouns:
право (pravo, right)безправие (bezpravie, lawlessness)
дар (dar, gift, talent)бездарие (bezdarie, lack of talent)
From objectifying concepts:
образ (obraz, image, form)безобразие (bezobrazie, disgrace)
предмет (predmet, subject, topic)безпредметие (bezpredmetie, lack of topic/reason)
From perception nouns:
срам (sram, shame)безсрамие (bezsramie, shamelessness)
страх (strah, fear)безстрашие (bezstrašie, fearlessness)
чувство (čuvstvo, feeling)безчувствие (bezčuvstvie, numbness)
вкус (vkus, taste)безвкусие (bezvkusie, tastelessness)
From perceptive nouns:
око (oko, eye)безочие (bezočie, impudence)
ум (um, mind)безумие (bezumie, madness, folly)
душа (duša, soul)бездушие (bezdušie, soullessness)
сърце (sǎrce, heart)безсърдечие (bezsǎrdečie, heartlessness)

Related termsEdit

Suffix 3Edit

-ие (-ien

  1. Forms collective plurals:
    Of creatures:
    люд (ljud, person, folk) (dated, obsolete)люде (ljude, people)
    нав (nav, undead) (obsolete)наве (nave, dead spirits) (obsolete)
    Of natural elements:
    камък (kamǎk, stone)камъне (kamǎne, rocks) (poetic)
    дърво (dǎrvo, tree)дърве (dǎrve, trees, wood) (poetic)
  2. Forms collective nouns expressing aggregation or clustering:
    From a plain word:
    грозд (grozd, grape)грозде (grozde, grape) (collective)
    цвят (cvjat, blossom)цвете (cvete, flower)
    Prefixed with съ-:
    съ- (s-) + звезда (zvezda, star)съзвездие (sǎzvezdie, constellation)
    съ- (s-) + цвят (cvjat, blossom)съцветие (sǎcvetie, inflorescence)
    Prefixes with об-/о-:
    об- (ob-) + *vilo (winding)обилие (obilie, abundance) (literally: “enveloping → endlessness”)
    о- (o-) + коло (kolo, wheel) (obsolete)околие (okolie, surroundings) (literally: “that is encircled”)
    Prefixed with a numeric term:
    дву- (dvu-, bi-) + лице (lice, face)двуличие (dvuličie, hypocrisy) (literally: “two-facedness”)
    сто- (sto-, centi-) + лято (ljato, summer)столетие (stoletie, century) (literally: “100 summers”)
  3. Forms collective nouns expressing extension, span:

Alternative formsEdit

Derived termsEdit



RussianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ие (-ije)

  1. Abstract noun suffix; forms part of larger suffixes such as -е́ние (-énije), -а́ние (-ánije), -тие (-tije), and exists on its own especially as a suffix added to compound words.
    много- (mnogo-, many) + ‎о́браз (óbraz, image) + ‎-ие (-ije) → ‎многообра́зие (mnogoobrázije, variety, diversity)
    ма́ло- (málo-, little) + ‎дух (dux, courage) + ‎-ие (-ije) → ‎малоду́шие (malodúšije, cowardice)
    пло́ско- (plósko-, flat) + ‎стопа́ (stopá, foot) + ‎-ие (-ije) → ‎плоскосто́пие (ploskostópije, flatfoot (medical condition))
    само- (samo-, self) + ‎люби́ть (ljubítʹ, to love) + ‎-ие (-ije) → ‎самолю́бие (samoljúbije, self-esteem, self-respect)
    со- (so-, con-) + ‎звезда́ (zvezdá, star) + ‎-ие (-ije) → ‎созве́здие (sozvézdije, constellation)

Usage notesEdit

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit