LatinEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Italic *pangō, from Proto-Indo-European *peh₂ǵ-. Cognates include Ancient Greek πήγνυμι (pḗgnumi).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

pangō (present infinitive pangere, perfect active pānxī or pēgī or pepigī, supine pānctum or pā̆ctum); third conjugation

  1. I fasten, fix, set, especially drive, sink, force in
    • 8th C. CE, Paulus Diaconus (author), Karl Otfried Müller (editor), Excerpta ex libris Pompeii Festi De significatione verborum (1839), page 212, line 7:
      Pangere fīgere, unde plantae pangī dīcuntur, quum in terram dēmittuntur; inde etiam versūs pangī vel fīgī in cērā dīcuntur.
      Pangere means to drive in, whence plants are said to be planted, when set into the ground; therefore verses too are said to be written or set in wax.
  2. (by extension) I set, plant
    • 4 CEc. 70 CE, Columella, De Re Rustica 11.2.42:
      Hōc eōdem mēnse in pastinātō sēmināriō novissima positiō est oleāris tāleae, eamque oportet, cum pānxeris, fimō et cinere mīxtīs oblinere, et superpōnere mūscum, nē sōle findātur.
      In the same month is the last season for olive cuttings in a trenched nursery-bed, and you should besmear it with manure and ash mixed together when you plant it, and to set moss over it, so that they may not be split by the sun.
    1. (transferred) I beget (children)
  3. (chiefly poetic) I compose, make heard or give out
    1. (usually) in verse
      • c. 99 BCE – 55 BCE, Lucretius, De rerum natura 1.933–934:
        [] deinde quod obscūrā dē rē tam lūcida pangō
        carmina, mūsaeō contingēns cūncta lepōre.
        [] then because I compose poems so lucid about such an obscure
        subject, touching everything with the grace of the Muses.
      • c. 19 BCE, Horace, Ars Poetica 416:
        Nunc satis est dīxisse: “ego mīra poēmata pangō.”
        Nowadays it's enough to say “I compose wonderful poems.”
      • 37 CE, Martial, Epigrammata 3.38.7–8
        Sī nihil hinc veniet, pangentur carmina nōbīs:
             audieris, dīcēs esse Marōnis opus.
        If nothing will come out of that, poems shall be composed by us:
             should you hear, you'd say it's Maro's work.
    2. (rare) in prose
      • 68 BCE – 44 BCE, Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum 2.6.2:
        Itaque ἀνέκδοτα ā nōbīs, quae tibi ūnī legāmus, Theopompiō genere aut etiam asperiōre multō pangentur.
        Therefore anecdotes, which I shall only read to you, will be composed by me, in Theopompian style or even more savage.
    3. in song
      • 239 BCE – 169 BCE, Ennius, Annales 293:
        Tibia Mūsārum pangit melos
        The pipe sings the melody of the Muses.
      • c. 310 CEc. 395 CE, Ausonius, Commemorātiō professōrum Burdigalēnsium 10.42–45:
        Pange et Anastasiō
        flēbile, Mūsa, melum
        et memorā tenuem
        nēnia, grammaticum.
        Sing to Anastasius too
        a flowing melody, Muse,
        and remember the delicate
        grammaticus, O dirge.
  4. (Late Latin, poetic) I celebrate, tell of, record, compose accounts of
    • a. 405 CE, Prudentius, Liber Cathēmerinōn 9.7:
      Facta nōs et iam probāta pangimus mīrācula.
      We tell of miracles done and already proven.
    • 1225 CE – 1274 CE, Thomas Aquinas, Pange lingua 1–6:
      Pange, lingua, glōriōsī
      corporis mystērium,
      sanguinisque prētiōsī,
      quem in mundī prētium
      frūctus ventris generosī
      rēx effūdit gentium.
      Tell, tongue, of the mistery
      of the glorious Body,
      and of the precious blood,
      which, for the price of the world,
      the Fruit of the noble Womb,
      the King of Nations spilled.
  5. (figuratively, almost exclusively perfect or participle) I fix, determine
    1. I agree upon, settle
      • c. 190 BCE – 185 BCE, Plautus, Bacchides 4.8.38:
        Dūcentīs Philippīs rem pepigī.
        I've settled the matter for two hundred Philippics.
      • 8 CE, Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.115–116:
        [] Vēlāmina Thisbēs
        tollit et ad pactae sēcum fert arboris umbram.
        The cloak of Thisbe
        he picks up and takes it with him to the shadow of the agreed upon tree.
      • c. 69 CEp. 122 CE, Suetonius, Dē rhētoribus 1.9:
        Aestīvō tempore adulēscentēs urbānī cum Ōstiam vēnissent, lītus ingressī, piscātōrēs trahentēs rēte adiērunt et pepigērunt, bolum quantī ēmerent.
        When youths from the city came to Ostia in the summer, having went on the beach, they approached the net-drawing fishermen and agreed on what they should pay for the haul.
    2. (finance) I settle a price or monetary value
      • 44 BCE, Cicero, De Officiis 3.107:
        Quod enim ita iūrātum est, ut mēns conciperet fierī oportere, id servandum est; quod aliter, id sī nōn fēcerit, nūllum est periūrium. Ut, sī praedōnibus pactum prō capite prētium non attulerīs, nūlla fraus sit, nē sī iūrātus quidem id nōn fēcerīs.
        That is to be kept, which is so sworn, that the mind conceives that it must be done; else, if one didn't do it, it's no perjury. Like, if you didn't bring the pirates the price settled for your head, there were no fraud, not even if you didn’t do it having vowed to prior.
      • 121 CE, Suetonius, De vita Caesarum Vespasian.23.2:
        Quendam ē cārīs ministrīs dispēnsātiōnem cuidam quasi frātrī petentem cum distulisset, ipsum candidātum ad sē vocāvit; exāctāque pecūniā, quantam is cum suffrāgātōre suō pepigerat, sine morā ōrdināvit; interpellantī mox ministrō: “Alium tibi,” ait, “quaere frātrem; hic, quem tuum putās, meus est.”
        When he [‌Vespasian] put off one of his dear servants requesting a stewardship for someone as for a brother, he called the candidate himself to him; and, having asked for as much money as that man had agreed with his advocate, he appointed him without delay; to the servant, soon asking about the matter, he said: “Search for another brother; this one, whom you believe your own, is mine.”
    3. I make an agreement, pledge
      • 44 BCE, Cicero, De Officiis 3.92:
        Sī quis medicāmentum cuipiam dederit ad aquam intercutem pepigeritque, sī eō medicāmentō sānus factus esset, nē illō medicāmentō umquam posteā ūterētur, sī eō medicāmentō sānus factus sit et annīs aliquot post inciderit in eundem morbum nec ab eō, quīcum pepigerat, impetret, ut iterum eō liceat utī, quid faciendum sit.
        What were to be done, if someone gave somebody a medicine for dropsy and made an agreement that, if he were to be made healthy by that medicine, he would never use that medicine afterwards, then, if he were made healthy by that medicine and some years afterwards fell sick to the same disease and didn't manage to get permission from the one he made a pledge with to use it again.
      • 27 BCE – 25 BCE, Titus Livius, Ab urbe condita libri 1.30.7:
        Pūblicō auxiliō nūllō adiūtī sunt, valuitque apud Vēientēs—nam dē cēterīs minus mīrum est—pacta cum Rōmulō indūtiārum fidēs.
        They were helped by no public aid, and the faith of the truce, agreed upon with Romulus, held among the Veiians—for it's less of a wonder concerning the others.
      • c. 330 CE, Juvencus, Evangeliorum libri 4.513–516:
        Pars strīctīs gladiīs pars fīdēns pondere clāvae
        sīgna sequēbātur Iūdae prōmissa furentis.
        Ōscula nam pepigit sēsē contingere Chrīstī,
        quō facile ignōtum caperet miserābile vulgus.
        One part with drawn swords, another confident in the weight of the cudgel
        was following the promised signs of thievish Judas.
        For he agreed to give Christ a kiss,
        so that the pitiable masses could easily capture the unknown one.
      • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Genesis.15.18:
        In illō diē pepigit Dominus foedus cum Ābram, dīcēns: “Sēminī tuō dabō terram hanc ā fluviō Aegyptī ūsque ad fluvium magnum Euphrāten []
        On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abraham, saying: “To your seed shall I give this land, from the river of Egypt all the way to the great river Euphrates []
    4. (of marital matters) I promise, pledge, arrange, undertake to perform
      • c. 84 BCE – 54 BCE, Catullus, Carmina 62.26–29:
        Hespere, quī caelō lūcet iūcundior ignis?
        qui dēspōnsa tuā firmēs connūbia flammā,
        quae pepigēre virī, pepigērunt ante parentēs,
        nec iūnxēre prius quam sē tuus extulit ardor.
        Hesperus, what happier fire shines in the sky?
        for you strengthen with your flame the contracted marriages,
        which husbands have arranged, which parents have arranged beforehand,
        and didn't unite before your fire arose.
      • c. 117 CE, Tacitus, Annales 12.5.1:
        Gāiō Pompēiō Quīntō Vērāniō cōnsulibus pactum inter Claudium et Agrippīnam mātrimōnium iam fāmā, iam amōre inlicitō fīrmābātur.
        With Gnaeus Pompeius and Quintus Veranius as consuls, the espousal agreed between Claudius and Agrippina was already being strengthened by rumour, by illicit love.
    5. (almost exclusively of women, only attested twice in reference to men) betroth, promise in wedlock
      • 43 BCEc. 17 CE, Ovid, Heroides 8.95–96:
        Nōn cultūs tibi cūra meī, nec pacta marītō
             intrāvī thalamōs mātre parante novōs.
        My rearing was not your concern, nor, betrothed to a husband,
             have I entered new bedchambers, with a mother preparing them.
      • ? - c. 90 CE, Gaius Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 584–586:
        Quāque iterum tacitō sparsit vaga lūmina vultū
        aut frātris quaerēns aut pactī coniugis arma,
        saevus ibī miserae sōlusque occurrit Iāsōn.
        And wherever she cast wandering eyes with silent face
        either searching for her brother's or her betrothed husband's weapons,
        there fierce Jason, alone, met her.

ConjugationEdit

   Conjugation of pangō (third conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present pangō pangis pangit pangimus pangitis pangunt
imperfect pangēbam pangēbās pangēbat pangēbāmus pangēbātis pangēbant
future pangam pangēs panget pangēmus pangētis pangent
perfect pānxī, pēgī, pepigī pānxistī, pēgistī, pepigistī pānxit, pēgit, pepigit pānximus, pēgimus, pepigimus pānxistis, pēgistis, pepigistis pānxērunt, pānxēre, pēgērunt, pēgēre, pepigērunt, pepigēre
pluperfect pānxeram, pēgeram, pepigeram pānxerās, pēgerās, pepigerās pānxerat, pēgerat, pepigerat pānxerāmus, pēgerāmus, pepigerāmus pānxerātis, pēgerātis, pepigerātis pānxerant, pēgerant, pepigerant
future perfect pānxerō, pēgerō, pepigerō pānxeris, pēgeris, pepigeris pānxerit, pēgerit, pepigerit pānxerimus, pēgerimus, pepigerimus pānxeritis, pēgeritis, pepigeritis pānxerint, pēgerint, pepigerint
passive present pangor pangeris, pangere pangitur pangimur pangiminī panguntur
imperfect pangēbar pangēbāris, pangēbāre pangēbātur pangēbāmur pangēbāminī pangēbantur
future pangar pangēris, pangēre pangētur pangēmur pangēminī pangentur
perfect pānctus or pā̆ctus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect pānctus or pā̆ctus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect pānctus or pā̆ctus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present pangam pangās pangat pangāmus pangātis pangant
imperfect pangerem pangerēs pangeret pangerēmus pangerētis pangerent
perfect pānxerim, pēgerim, pepigerim pānxerīs, pēgerīs, pepigerīs pānxerit, pēgerit, pepigerit pānxerīmus, pēgerīmus, pepigerīmus pānxerītis, pēgerītis, pepigerītis pānxerint, pēgerint, pepigerint
pluperfect pānxissem, pēgissem, pepigissem pānxissēs, pēgissēs, pepigissēs pānxisset, pēgisset, pepigisset pānxissēmus, pēgissēmus, pepigissēmus pānxissētis, pēgissētis, pepigissētis pānxissent, pēgissent, pepigissent
passive present pangar pangāris, pangāre pangātur pangāmur pangāminī pangantur
imperfect pangerer pangerēris, pangerēre pangerētur pangerēmur pangerēminī pangerentur
perfect pānctus or pā̆ctus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect pānctus or pā̆ctus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present pange pangite
future pangitō pangitō pangitōte panguntō
passive present pangere pangiminī
future pangitor pangitor panguntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives pangere pānxisse, pēgisse, pepigisse pānctūrum esse, pā̆ctūrum esse pangī pānctum esse, pā̆ctum esse pānctum īrī, pā̆ctum īrī
participles pangēns pānctūrus, pā̆ctūrus pānctus, pā̆ctus pangendus, pangundus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
pangendī pangendō pangendum pangendō pānctum, pā̆ctum pānctū, pā̆ctū

Usage notesEdit

The third principal part pānxī is very rare; outside a few textually uncertain attestations, the above quotation from Columella is the only place it is found. The perfect pēgī might belong to the archaic form pagō/pacō instead.

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


MaoriEdit

NounEdit

pango

  1. black (colour/color)

SwahiliEdit

NounEdit

pango (ma class, plural mapango)

  1. cave

TagalogEdit

AdjectiveEdit

pangô

  1. snub-nosed

SynonymsEdit