Pictogram (象形); derived from the pictogram of a horse with its head turned to look back and showing a flowing mane in the wind. The four short strokes at its base (灬) represent its feet, and the sweeping hook stroke in the lower right represents its tail.
|Oracle bone script||Bronze inscriptions||Large seal script||Small seal script|
|Clerical script||Semi-cursive script||Cursive script|
- KangXi radical 187 馬
- KangXi: page 1433, character 1
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44572
- Dae Jaweon: page 1956, character 34
- Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4539, character 1
- Unihan data for U+99AC
- Cantonese (Jyutping): maa5
- Hakka (Pha̍k-fa-sṳ): mâ
- Min Nan (POJ): bé / má
- Wu (WT Romanisation): mo (T3); ma (T3)
- Min Nan
|Middle Chinese pronunciation (馬, reconstructed)|
|Character (馬), Pronunciation (1/1)|
Initial: 明 (4)
|Old Chinese pronunciation (馬, reconstructed)|
|Baxter-Sagart system (2011)|
|Middle Chinese||Old Chinese||English|
|馬||mǎ||‹ mæX ›||/*mˁraʔ/||horse|
|Zhengzhang system (2003)|
馬 (classifier 匹)
- "马" (in Mandarin/English), MDBG English to Chinese dictionary ( Based on CC-CEDICT ). URL accessed on 2014-02-17.
|Japanese stroke order|
From Old Japanese. Recorded in the Nihon Shoki as having been brought over from the Korean peninsula kingdom of Baekje, with the earlier reading of ma. The initial m sound was apparently emphasized, possibly similar to *mma, becoming then uma or muma, via processes also seen in the word 梅 (ume, mume, “plum”).
The ma sound denoting "horse" is common to a number of languages of central Asia, where horses were first domesticated, suggesting a possible cognate root. Compare Manchu ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ (morin, “horse”), Mongol морь (morj, “horse”), Korean 말 (mal, “horse”), Mandarin 馬 (mă, “horse”), and Proto-Indo-European *mark(')- (“horse”) and descendants such as Irish marc (“horse”, archaic) or English mare (“female horse”). More at *mark(')-.
- a horse
- (shogi) a promoted bishop
- a sawhorse: a four-leg stand made of wood or iron for supporting other materials
Shift from uma form, becoming more common starting from the Heian Period. This change later reverted, and muma is now considered obsolete.
- (obsolete) a horse
- 1957, Tomotarō Suzuki; Hisao Kaaguchi, Yoshimoto Endō, Kyōichi Nishishita, Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 20: Tosa Nikki, Kagerō Nikki, Izumi Shikibu Nikki, Sarashina Nikki (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-00-060020-6:
- 2003 [c. 759], Akihiro Satake; Hideo Yamada, Rikio Kudō, Masao Ōtani, Yoshiyuki Yamazaki, Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 4: Man'yōshū 4 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-00-240004-2:
- Sound (hangeul): 마 (McCune-Reischauer: ma, Yale: ma)
- This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove
- 말 (mal)
- 兵馬 (binh mã)
- (dialectal) don't
- tomb, grave
- to open