Pictogram (象形); derived from the pictogram of a horse with its head turned to look back and showing a flowing mane in the wind. The four short strokes at its base (灬) represent its feet, and the sweeping hook stroke in the lower right represents its tail.
|Oracle bone script||Bronze inscriptions||Large seal script||Small seal script|
|Clerical script||Semi-cursive script||Cursive script|
馬 (radical 187 馬+0, 10 strokes, cangjie input 尸手尸火 (SQSF), four-corner 71327)
- KangXi: page 1433, character 1
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44572
- Dae Jaweon: page 1956, character 34
- Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4539, character 1
- Unihan data for U+99AC
馬 (POJ ma, Guangdong [Bao'an, Hong Kong, Meixian] ma1, [Hailu, Siyan, Kwangtung] ma1, ma3, Hagfa Pinyim ma1)
- CCDICT (Chineselanguage.org)
- Academia Sinica - Hakka-English Dictionary
- Lau, Chun-fat. Hakka Pinyin Dictionary (Chinese). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1997 (Chinese IME supplement) ISBN 962-201-750-9.
|Japanese stroke order|
From Old Japanese. Recorded in the Nihon Shoki as having been brought over from the Korean peninsula kingdom of Baekje, with the earlier reading of ma. The initial m sound was apparently emphasized, possibly similar to *mma, becoming then uma or muma, via processes also seen in the word 梅 (ume, mume, “plum”).
The ma sound denoting "horse" is common to a number of languages of central Asia, where horses were first domesticated, suggesting a possible cognate root. Compare Manchu morin (“horse”), Mongol морь (morj, “horse”), Korean 말 (mal, “horse”), Mandarin 馬 (mă, “horse”), and Proto-Indo-European *mark(')- (“horse”) and descendants such as Irish marc (“horse”, archaic) or English mare (“female horse”).
- a horse
- (shogi) a promoted bishop
- a sawhorse: a four-leg stand made of wood or iron for supporting other materials
Shift from uma form, becoming more common starting from the Heian Period. This change later reverted, and muma is now considered obsolete.
馬 (hiragana むま, romaji muma)
- (obsolete) a horse
- 1957, Tomotarō Suzuki; Hisao Kaaguchi, Yoshimoto Endō, Kyōichi Nishishita, Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 20: Tosa Nikki, Kagerō Nikki, Izumi Shikibu Nikki, Sarashina Nikki (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-00-060020-6:
- 2003 [c. 759], Akihiro Satake; Hideo Yamada, Rikio Kudō, Masao Ōtani, Yoshiyuki Yamazaki, Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 4: Man'yōshū 4 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-00-240004-2:
- Sound (hangeul): 마 (revised: ma, McCune-Reischauer: ma, Yale: ma)
- 말 (mal)