See also:

TranslingualEdit

simpl.
trad.
Stroke order
馬-order.gif

EtymologyEdit

Icelandic horse1.jpg

Pictogram (象形); derived from the pictogram of a horse with its head turned to look back and showing a flowing mane in the wind. The four short strokes at its base () represent its feet, and the sweeping hook stroke in the lower right represents its tail.

Compare also (bird), whose current form is similar (graphically, for claws/legs).

Contrast with 鹿 (deer), which saw a very different development, and 𢊁 (bison) (as in ), which is a hybrid: it has the the legs of 馬 (灬) but the head of 鹿.

馬 馬 馬 馬
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
馬 馬 馬
Clerical script Semi-cursive script Cursive script

Han characterEdit

(radical 187 +0, 10 strokes, cangjie input 尸手尸火 (SQSF), four-corner 71327)

  1. horse
  2. used as a surname
  3. KangXi radical 187

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1433, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44572
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1956, character 34
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4539, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+99AC

CantoneseEdit

HanziEdit

(simplified , Jyutping maa5, Yale ma5)


HakkaEdit

HanziEdit

(POJ ma, Guangdong [Bao'an, Hong Kong, Meixian] ma1, [Hailu, Siyan, Kwangtung] ma1, ma3, Hagfa Pinyim ma1)

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

Japanese stroke order
馬-jbw.png

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. horse

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia ja

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Japanese. Recorded in the Nihon Shoki as having been brought over from the Korean peninsula kingdom of Baekje, with the earlier reading of ma. The initial m sound was apparently emphasized, possibly similar to *mma, becoming then uma or muma, via processes also seen in the word (ume, mume, plum).

The ma sound denoting "horse" is common to a number of languages of central Asia, where horses were first domesticated, suggesting a possible cognate root. Compare Manchu ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ (morin, horse), Mongol морь (morj, horse), Korean (mal, horse), Mandarin (, horse), and Proto-Indo-European *mark(')- (horse) and descendants such as Irish marc (horse, archaic) or English mare (female horse). More at *mark(')-.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana うま, romaji uma)

  1. a horse
  2. (shogi) a promoted bishop
  3. a sawhorse: a four-leg stand made of wood or iron for supporting other materials

Etymology 2Edit

Shift from uma form, becoming more common starting from the Heian Period. This change later reverted, and muma is now considered obsolete.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana むま, romaji muma)

  1. (obsolete) a horse
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū (book 20, poem #4372)
      阿志加良能 美佐可多麻波理 可閇理美須 阿例波久江由久 阿良志乎母 多志夜波婆可流 不破乃世伎 久江弖和波由久 牟麻能都米 都久志能佐伎尓 知麻利為弖 阿例波伊波々牟 母呂々々波 佐祁久等麻乎須 可閇利久麻弖尓
    • c. 935 Tosa Nikki
      ふぢはらのときざね、ふなぢなれど、むまのはなむけす。
    • c. 935 Tosa Nikki
      けふはあをむまをおもへど、かひなし。

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ma)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: ma, McCune-Reischauer: ma, Yale: ma)
  • Name (hangeul): [[, ]] (revised: mal, seong, McCune-Reischauer: mal, sŏng, Yale: mal, seng)

CompoundsEdit

See alsoEdit


MandarinEdit

PronunciationEdit

HanziEdit

(simplified , Pinyin (ma3), Wade-Giles ma3)

NounEdit

(traditional, Pinyin (ma3), measure word , simplified )

  1. horse

Proper nounEdit

(traditional, Pinyin (ma3), simplified )

  1. A surname​.
  2. Kangxi radical 187

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • "" (in Mandarin/English), MDBG English to Chinese dictionary ( Based on CC-CEDICT ). URL accessed on 2014-02-17.

Min NanEdit

HanziEdit

(POJ (ma2), (be2))


VietnameseEdit

CharacterEdit

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

NounEdit

(ngựa)

  1. horse

Etymology 2Edit

NounEdit

(mứa)

  1. excess

Etymology 3Edit

NounEdit

(mựa)

  1. (dialectal) don't

Etymology 4Edit

NounEdit

(mả)

  1. tomb, grave
    • 1916: Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, Lục Vân Tiên, lines 921–922
      (tiểu)(đồng)(chẳng)(kịp)(hỏi)(han)/𦣰(nằm)(lăn)(bên)(mả)(khóc)(than)(bồi)(hồi)
      Before the page has a chance to pay a visit, / He throws himself down upon the grave, crying, lamenting, fretting.

Etymology 5Edit

VerbEdit

(mở)

  1. to open

ReferencesEdit

Last modified on 15 April 2014, at 11:03