U+5BFA, 寺
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BFA

[U+5BF9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BFB]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 41, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 土木戈 (GDI), four-corner 40341, composition (GJKV) or (HT))

Alternative forms

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  • Note that in Japanese, Korean and Simplified Chinese scripts, the top half of the character is 土 (instead of 士 as seen in Traditional Chinese), which is also the historical form found in the Kangxi Dictionary.

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 293, character 33
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7414
  • Dae Jaweon: page 581, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 503, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5BFA

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ljɯs) : phonetic 𡳿 (OC *tjɯ, to go) + semantic (hand) – to grasp, to hold. Phonetic 𡳿 () became or in the clerical script from the late Western Han to the Eastern Han, and semantic become in Small Seal Script. The derivative (OC *l'ɯ) refers to the original word.

The character was often used in the place of a more specialized form. For example, in the Chu Silk Manuscript (see table above) it clearly stood for (OC *djɯ, “season”).

Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • sī - vernacular;
  • sū/sīr - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (17)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ziH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/zɨH/
Pan
Wuyun
/zɨH/
Shao
Rongfen
/zieH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/zɨH/
Li
Rong
/ziəH/
Wang
Li
/zĭəH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ziH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zi6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ziH ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-[d]əʔ-s/
English hall

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12030
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ljɯs/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. (historical) government court; office (before the Han dynasty)
    大理  ―  Dàlǐ  ―  Court of Judicature and Revision
  2. (Buddhism) temple; monastery
    白馬白马  ―  Báimǎ  ―  White Horse Temple
    少林  ―  Shàolín  ―  Shaolin Monastery
    哲蚌  ―  Zhébàng  ―  Drepung Monastery
  3. place of worship; shrine
    清真  ―  qīngzhēn  ―  mosque
    仙鶴仙鹤  ―  Xiānhè  ―  Crane Mosque
    西敏  ―  Xīmǐn  ―  Westminster Abbey
  4. (obsolete) Original form of (chí, “to hold; to grasp”).
  5. a surname
Usage notes
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Not used for places of worship of Taoism and Chinese folk religion.

Synonyms
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  • (temple):

Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ji)
  • Korean: 사(寺) (sa)

Pronunciation 2

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Definitions

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  1. (obsolete) internal court official, especially a eunuch

Further reading

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. (Buddhism) temple

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
てら
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE,[1] and in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[2]

There are various theories regarding the ultimate derivation.

Considering the phonetic development in Korean, the avenues for transmission of Buddhist terms to Japan, and the consistent temple sense of the Japanese term throughout recorded history, the now-obsolete Korean (dyeol, temple) may be a more likely source than Pali thera (elders).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(てら) (tera (counter )

  1. (chiefly Buddhism) a temple

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ziH).

Pronunciation

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  • The pitch accent depends on the suffixed term.

Suffix

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() (-ji

  1. (chiefly Buddhism) a temple

References

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  1. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^
    c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 16, poem 3822:
    , text here
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  6. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  7. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (jeol sa))

  1. Hanja form? of (temple).

Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: tự, chùa

  1. Buddhist monastery