See also: and ±
U+58EB, 士
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-58EB

[U+58EA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+58EC]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 33, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 十一 (JM), four-corner 40100, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #33, .
  2. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №9

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 242, character 38
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5638
  • Dae Jaweon: page 482, character 38
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 416, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+58EB

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Pictogram (象形) – axe-like tool; soldier.

Etymology 1Edit

"bachelor, man, male"
  • Reminiscent of Austroasiatic synonyms like Old Khmer si (male) or MK words for "man, male" like *ʔŋsiil, *ensir, *kəsəy on the Malay Peninsula; Schuessler (2007) noted that foreign *-r sometimes left traces in OC initial complex. These relations, if, valid, would keep 士1 "bachelor, man, male" distinct from 士2 "servant, retainer, officer, scholar".
"take or give an office, serve", "servant", "retainer", "officer", "scholar"
  • Schuessler (2007) noted that one could naturally assume the semantic development "male > man > servant > to serve" in order to posit that 士1 "bachelor, man, male" is the same word as 士2 "servant, retainer, officer, scholar". Yet, the exopassive derivation (OC *ʔsrɯs, *zrɯs) "assignment, affair, thing" and Tibeto-Burman counterparts demonstrated no association with "man, maleness"; & "male" hardly derives from "to serve".
  • Therefore, Schuessler derived these forms from (OC *rɯʔ) "envoy, jail official, matchmaker" & proposed ultimate Austroasiatic origins. In terms of phonology, MC *dʐ- normally does not occur with *l- and *ʂ in an ST word-family, apparently confirming a non-ST provenance; however, MC *dʐ- here could go back to OC *s-r- (unlike MC *ʂ-, which is from OC *sr)
  • Subsequenly, Schuessler posited either relation to Austroasiatic or OC loan into Tibeto-Burman as Proto-Tibeto-Burman *ʔ-dzəj (send on an errant) (Matisoff, 2003), whence Burmese [script needed] (ca, thing) & Tibetan རྫས (rdzas, thing, matter, object) (Gong, 1999). Even so, Tibeto-Burman cognates of this etymon and (suǒ) are difficult to distinguish.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Tianjin /sz̩⁵³/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩²¹/
Qingdao /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩³¹²/
Xi'an /sz̩⁴⁴/
Xining /sz̩²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Ürümqi /sz̩²¹³/
Wuhan /sz̩³⁵/
Chengdu /sz̩¹³/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹³/
Kunming /sz̩²¹²/
Nanjing /sz̩⁴⁴/
Hefei /sz̩⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /sz̩⁴⁵/
Pingyao /sz̩³⁵/
Hohhot /sz̩⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /zz̩²³/
Suzhou /zz̩³¹/
Hangzhou /zz̩¹³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³⁵/
Hui Shexian /sz̩²²/
Tunxi /sz̩¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sz̩⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /sz̩⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /sz̩²¹/
Hakka Meixian /sz̩⁵³/
Taoyuan /sï⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /si²²/
Nanning /sz̩²²/
Hong Kong /si²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /su²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /søy²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /su⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /sɯ³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /si³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (20)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʒɨX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖ͡ʐɨX/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʒieX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖ͡ʐɨX/
Li
Rong
/d͡ʒiəX/
Wang
Li
/d͡ʒĭəX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɖ͡ʐʱiX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhì
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shì
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzriX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[m-s-]rəʔ/
English officer; gentleman

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11511
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zrɯʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. unmarried male; bachelor
  2. (honorific) man
  3. general; high-ranking military officer
  4. soldier; noncommissioned officer
      ―  shìbīng  ―  soldier
  5. (historical) scholar-official (civil servant appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance)
  6. (historical) self-appellation used by scholar-officials in ancient China, when addressing the emperor: I; subject
  7. (historical) a social stratum in ancient China
  8. scholar; academic; intellectual; intelligentsia
      ―  shì  ―  doctor; doctoral degree
    •   ―  yuànshì  ―  academician
  9. (honorific) suffix for a virtuous, knowledgeable or skilled person: commendable person
      ―  shì  ―  Lady
    /   ―  shì  ―  nurse
  10. (xiangqi) adviser; guard; minister (usually only on the black side, in some sets on both red and black sides)
  11. Alternative form of (shì, “to be an official”).
  12. A surname​.
Usage notesEdit
  • is commonly used to render the /s/ sound (not followed by a vowel) in foreign names, e.g. 威士忌 (wēishìjì, “whiskey”), 巴士 (bāshì, “bus”), which is from Cantonese usage.
Coordinate termsEdit

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (shi)
  • Korean: (, sa)
  • Vietnamese: ()

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“earth; soil; clay; etc.”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on’yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

() (shi

  1. samurai, warrior

SuffixEdit

() (-shi

  1. person with a certain qualification.
    弁護(べんご)()
    bengoshi
    a lawyer
    会計(かいけい)()
    kaikeishi
    an accountant

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʒɨX). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄉᆞ〮 (Yale: so) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 선비 (seonbi sa))

  1. Hanja form? of (scholar, gentleman; soldier).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: , sỹ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit