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See also:
U+7B49, 等
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7B49

[U+7B48]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7B4A]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 118 +6, 12 strokes, cangjie input 竹土木戈 (HGDI), four-corner 88341, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 882, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25992
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1311, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 2962, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7B49

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*tɯːʔ, *tɯːŋʔ
*dɯːʔ
*ljɯs
*l'ɯ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ, *tjɯʔ
*dɯʔ, *tjɯʔ, *djɯʔ
*dɯʔ, *djɯs
*dɯʔ
*djɯ
*djɯ
*djɯ
*djɯ, *djɯs
*djɯ
*djɯʔ
*djɯs
*hljɯ
*hljɯ
*dɯːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tɯːʔ, *tɯːŋʔ): semantic  (bamboo) + phonetic  (OC *ljɯs).

here refers to the bamboo strips used for writing (e.g. grading, classification) in ancient times. (OC *ljɯs) was originally used phonetically; the character was subsequently borrowed for another word with the same meaning, but with no phonetic resemblance to .

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ten4 - vernacular;
  • den3 - literary.
Note:
  • dēng - vernacular;
  • dīng - literary.
Note:
  • tán - vernacular;
  • tńg/téng - literary.
Note:
  • dang2 - vernacular;
  • dêng2 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /təŋ²¹⁴/
Harbin /təŋ²¹³/
Tianjin /təŋ¹³/
Jinan /təŋ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /təŋ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /təŋ⁵³/
Xi'an /təŋ⁵³/
Xining /tə̃⁵³/
Yinchuan /təŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /tə̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /tɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /tən⁴²/
Chengdu /tən⁵³/
Guiyang /ten⁴²/
Kunming /tə̃/
Nanjing /tən²¹²/
Hefei /tən²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /təŋ⁵³/
Pingyao /təŋ⁵³/
Hohhot /tə̃ŋ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /təŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /tən⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ten⁵³/
Wenzhou /taŋ³⁵/
Hui Shexian /tʌ̃³⁵/
Tunxi /tɛ³¹/
Xiang Changsha /tən⁴¹/
Xiangtan /tən⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /tɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ten³¹/
Taoyuan /ten³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /tɐŋ³⁵/
Nanning /tɐŋ³⁵/
Hong Kong /tɐŋ³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiŋ⁵³/
/tan⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tiŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /taiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /teŋ⁵³/
/taŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdeŋ²¹³/
/ʔdɔŋ²¹³/
/ʔdaŋ²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (5) (5)
Final () (41) (129)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʌiX/ /təŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/təiX/ /təŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/tɒiX/ /təŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/təjX/ /təŋX/
Li
Rong
/tᴀiX/ /təŋX/
Wang
Li
/tɒiX/ /təŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tɑ̆iX/ /təŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dǎi děng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
děng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tongX ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˤəŋʔ/
English step, grade

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 12028 12054
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tɯːʔ/ /*tɯːŋʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. orderly bamboo slips
  2. rank; grade; class
  3. sort; kind; type
  4. to equate; to be equal
  5. to wait
  6. and the like; etc.; et al.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
とう
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (tongX, step, grade), extended to mean ... kind of thing.

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

(hiragana とう, rōmaji )

  1. et cetera

SuffixEdit

(hiragana とう, rōmaji -tō)

  1. rank, class, order
  2. et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
Usage notesEdit

For the et cetera sense, the reading is somewhat more formal than the nado reading.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
など
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From earlier なんど (nando, etc., and so forth, and such like), from earlier 何と (nani to, etc., and so forth, and such like, literally and what), itself a compound of (nani, what) + (to, and).[2][1][3]

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

(hiragana など, rōmaji nado)

  1. et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
     (さかな) (にく) (など)
    sakana ya niku nado
    things like fish or meat, fish and meat et cetera / and other such things
Usage notesEdit

For the et cetera sense, the reading is somewhat more formal than the nado reading.

Often spelled in hiragana, as など.

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
なんど
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From earlier 何と (nani to, etc., and so forth, and such like, literally and what), itself a compound of (nani, what) + (to, and).[2][1][3]

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

(hiragana なんど, rōmaji nando)

  1. (archaic, chiefly obsolete) et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
Usage notesEdit

Largely superseded by the nado reading above.

May be spelled in hiragana, as なんど.

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji -ra)

  1. pluralizer
     (われ) (われ) ()、これ、これ ()
    ware, warera, kore, korera
    I, we, this, these
  2. qualifier, softener: around abouts
     (きょ) () ()、そこ () (へん)
    kyōra, sokora hen
    roughly today, that area around there
Usage notesEdit

Often spelled in hiragana, as .

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. 3.0 3.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(deung)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: deung, McCune-Reischauer: tŭng, Yale: tung)
    • Name (hangeul): 무리 (Yale: mulitung)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(đẳng, đấng, đứng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.