See also:
U+7B49, 等
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7B49

[U+7B48]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7B4A]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 118, +6, 12 strokes, cangjie input 竹土木戈 (HGDI), four-corner 88341, composition 𥫗)

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 882, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25992
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1311, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 2962, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7B49

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *tɯːʔ, *tɯːŋʔ) : semantic (bamboo) + phonetic (OC *ljɯs).

here refers to the bamboo strips used for writing (e.g. grading, classification) in ancient times. (OC *ljɯs) was originally used phonetically; the character was subsequently borrowed for another word with the same meaning, but with no phonetic resemblance to .

Etymology 1

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trad.
simp. #
2nd round simp. ⿱艹寸

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-tjaŋ (top; to rise; to raise) (STEDT). Endoactive of (OC *tɯːŋ, “to rise; to ascend”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • Southern Sixian:
    • tên/nên - plural particle.
Note: literary.
Note: literary.
Note: literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /təŋ²¹⁴/
Harbin /təŋ²¹³/
Tianjin /təŋ¹³/
Jinan /təŋ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /təŋ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /təŋ⁵³/
Xi'an /təŋ⁵³/
Xining /tə̃⁵³/
Yinchuan /təŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /tə̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /tɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /tən⁴²/
Chengdu /tən⁵³/
Guiyang /ten⁴²/
Kunming /tə̃⁵³/
Nanjing /tən²¹²/
Hefei /tən²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /təŋ⁵³/
Pingyao /təŋ⁵³/
Hohhot /tə̃ŋ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /təŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /tən⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ten⁵³/
Wenzhou /taŋ³⁵/
Hui Shexian /tʌ̃³⁵/
Tunxi /tɛ³¹/
Xiang Changsha /tən⁴¹/
Xiangtan /tən⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /tɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ten³¹/
Taoyuan /ten³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /tɐŋ³⁵/
Nanning /tɐŋ³⁵/
Hong Kong /tɐŋ³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /tiŋ⁵³/
/tan⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /tiŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /taiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /teŋ⁵³/
/taŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ʔdeŋ²¹³/
/ʔdɔŋ²¹³/
/ʔdaŋ²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (5) (5)
Final () (41) (129)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Baxter tojX tongX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʌiX/ /təŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/təiX/ /təŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/tɒiX/ /təŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/təjX/ /təŋX/
Li
Rong
/tᴀiX/ /təŋX/
Wang
Li
/tɒiX/ /təŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tɑ̆iX/ /təŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dǎi děng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
doi2 dang2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
děng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tongX ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˁəŋʔ/
English step, grade

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 12028 12054
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tɯːʔ/ /*tɯːŋʔ/

Definitions

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  1. to arrange bamboo slips neatly
  2. rank; grade; class
  3. sort; kind; type
  4. (Chinese phonetics) one of the "divisions" of a rime table, encoding some phonological distinction; see   Middle Chinese finals on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
    重紐重纽  ―  chóngniǔ sānděng  ―  the third division member of a rime doublet
  5. (in compounds or after a number/degree) equal; equivalent
      ―  Èr chéng èr děng sì.  ―  Two times two equals four.
      ―  děng  ―  to be equal
  6. and the like; and so on; etc.; et al.
    今天晚上話劇唱歌跳舞精彩表演 [MSC, trad.]
    今天晚上话剧唱歌跳舞精彩表演 [MSC, simp.]
    Jīntiān wǎnshàng yǒu huàjù, chànggē, tiàowǔ děng jīngcǎi biǎoyǎn. [Pinyin]
    Tonight there are wonderful performances like drama, singing, dancing, and more.
  7. Particle indicating the ending of enumeration.
    中國北京上海天津重慶直轄市 [MSC, trad.]
    中国北京上海天津重庆直辖市 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhōngguó yǒu Běijīng, Shànghǎi, Tiānjīn, Chóngqìng děng sì ge zhíxiáshì. [Pinyin]
    China has four direct-administered municipalities: Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing.
  8. (literary or Hakka) Plural particle used after personal pronouns or nouns.
    [Classical Chinese]  ―  ěrděng [Pinyin]  ―  you (plural)
    𠊎 [Sixian Hakka]  ―  ngài-tén [Pha̍k-fa-sṳ]  ―  we; us
  9. a surname
Descendants
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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (とう) ()
  • Korean: 등(等) (deung)
  • Vietnamese: đẳng ()

Others:

  • Proto-Turkic: *teŋ (equal) (see there for further descendants)

Etymology 2

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trad.
simp. #
2nd round simp. ⿱艹寸

A medieval word, probably related to (OC *dɯːʔ, “to wait”) (Wang, 1982).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • Southern Sixian:
    • tén/nén/nún/lún - progressive particle;
    • tén - other senses.
Note: vernacular.
Note:
  • tán - vernacular;
  • téng/tńg - literary.
Note:
  • dang2 - vernacular;
  • dêng2 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /təŋ²¹⁴/
Harbin /təŋ²¹³/
Tianjin /təŋ¹³/
Jinan /təŋ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /təŋ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /təŋ⁵³/
Xi'an /təŋ⁵³/
Xining /tə̃⁵³/
Yinchuan /təŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /tə̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /tɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /tən⁴²/
Chengdu /tən⁵³/
Guiyang /ten⁴²/
Kunming /tə̃⁵³/
Nanjing /tən²¹²/
Hefei /tən²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /təŋ⁵³/
Pingyao /təŋ⁵³/
Hohhot /tə̃ŋ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /təŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /tən⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ten⁵³/
Wenzhou /taŋ³⁵/
Hui Shexian /tʌ̃³⁵/
Tunxi /tɛ³¹/
Xiang Changsha /tən⁴¹/
Xiangtan /tən⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /tɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ten³¹/
Taoyuan /ten³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /tɐŋ³⁵/
Nanning /tɐŋ³⁵/
Hong Kong /tɐŋ³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /tiŋ⁵³/
/tan⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /tiŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /taiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /teŋ⁵³/
/taŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ʔdeŋ²¹³/
/ʔdɔŋ²¹³/
/ʔdaŋ²¹³/

Definitions

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  1. to wait (for)
    多久  ―  děng duōjiǔ le?  ―  How long have you been waiting?
    邊個 [Cantonese, trad.]
    边个 [Cantonese, simp.]
    nei5 dang2 bin1 go3 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Who are you waiting for?
  2. when (something happens at a point in time in the future)
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    dang2 ngo5 zou6 jyun4 je5 sin1 tung4 nei5 king1. [Jyutping]
    Let's talk when I finish my work.
  3. (Cantonese) to be in need of
    錢使钱使 [Cantonese]  ―  dang2 cin4-2 sai2 [Jyutping]  ―  short of money (literally, “in need of money to spend”)
  4. (Cantonese, Xiang) to let; to allow; to permit
    Synonym: (ràng) (Mandarin)
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    dang2 ngo5 nam2 haa5 sin1. [Jyutping]
    Let me think a little first.
  5. (Cantonese) to let (used to give notice to something in the future)
    一五一十 [Cantonese, trad.]
    一五一十 [Cantonese, simp.]
    dang2 ngo5 jat1 ng5 jat1 sap6 waa6 nei5 zi1 laa1! [Jyutping]
    Let me tell you in full detail!
  6. (Cantonese) to cause; to make
    Synonym: (ràng) (Mandarin)
    細佬唔記得學費專登爸爸 [Cantonese, trad.]
    细佬唔记得学费专登爸爸 [Cantonese, simp.]
    sai3 lou2 m4 gei3 dak1 gaau1 hok6 fai3, ngo5 zyun1 dang1 mou5 tai4 keoi5, dang2 keoi5 bei2 baa1-4 baa1 naau6 caan1 baau2. [Jyutping]
    My little brother forgot to pay his tuition fees. I intentionally didn't remind him of it to make him get a good scolding from Dad.
  7. (Cantonese) Introduces a clause that expresses negative surprise.
    原來你哋一個揸車以為 [Cantonese, trad.]
    原来你哋一个揸车以为 [Cantonese, simp.]
    jyun4 loi4 nei5 dei6 mou5 jat1 go3 sik1 zaa1 ce1 gaa4, dang2 ngo5 zung6 ji5 wai4 sat6 jau5 jan4 ce1 ngo5 tim1. [Jyutping]
    It turns out that none of you know how to drive? I thought there had to be someone who would drive me.
    開心 [Cantonese, trad.]
    开心 [Cantonese, simp.]
    dang2 nei5 zung6 siu3 dak1 gam3 hoi1 sam1, bei2 jan4 wan2 zo2 ban6 dou1 m4 zi1. [Jyutping]
    You're still smiling so happily!? You were taken advantage of and you didn't know.
  8. (Gan) by
  9. (Hakka) Progressive particle, used after verbs to indicate the continuation of an action or a state.
Synonyms
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  • (to wait):
  • (by):
  • (progressive marker):

Compounds

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Further reading

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. equal
  2. et cetera
  3. a pluralizer

Readings

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
とう
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (tongX, step, grade), extended to mean ... kind of thing.

Pronunciation

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Adverb

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(とう) (

  1. et cetera

Suffix

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(とう) (-tō

  1. rank, class, order
  2. et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
Usage notes
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For the et cetera sense, the reading is somewhat more formal than the nado reading.

Derived terms

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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
など
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(obsolete)

From earlier なんど (nando, etc., and so forth, and such like), from earlier 何と (nani to, etc., and so forth, and such like, literally and what), itself a compound of (nani, what) + (to, and).[2][1][3]

Pronunciation

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Adverb

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(など) (nado

  1. et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
    (さかな)(にく)(など)
    sakana ya niku nado
    things like fish or meat, fish and meat et cetera / and other such things
Usage notes
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For the et cetera sense, the reading is somewhat more formal than the nado reading.

Often spelled in hiragana, as など.

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
なんど
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From earlier 何と (nani to, etc., and so forth, and such like, literally and what), itself a compound of (nani, what) + (to, and).[2][1][3]

Pronunciation

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Adverb

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(なんど) (nando

  1. (archaic, chiefly obsolete) et cetera, that kind of thing, and so on
Usage notes
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Largely superseded by the nado reading above.

May be spelled in hiragana, as なんど.

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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() (-ra

  1. pluralizer
    (われ)(われ)()これ、これ()
    ware, warera, kore, korera
    I, we, this, these
  2. qualifier, softener: around abouts
    今日(きょう)()そこ()(へん)
    kyōra, sokora hen
    roughly today, that area around there
Usage notes
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Often spelled in hiragana, as .

Synonyms
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  • (たち, ​tachi)
  • (ども, ​domo)

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun 무리 (muri deung))

  1. Hanja form? of (rank, class, order).
  2. Hanja form? of (et cetera).

Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: đẳng, đấng, đứng

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.